The Management

A Comparative Examination of Japanese and American Management Styles, and Their Respective It is widely recognized that Japanese and American styles of business management practice differ broadly across the range of supervisory style, decision-making, communications, management controls, and interdepartmental relations. These specific distinctions are rooted in the contrast between Japanese paternalism, which has sometimes been characterized as giving rise to “industrial feudalism,” and American individualism, which might more accurately be characterized as personalism.

It is proposed that the underlying factor in all of these distinctions is the Japanese group orientation, in which an individual’s self-esteem is based upon group perceptions, or what has sometimes been called “saving face. ” The Japanese manager sees himself as a samurai, having duties and loyalties running up and down. In contrast, American managers’ self-perceptions are far more internalized, and less shaped by the reactions of colleagues.

The lone cowboy, reliant only on himself, is the underlying American business ideal, and his obligations to others are ultimately secondary to his duty to himself. Beginning in the 1970s and early 1980s, the successes of Japanese industry in penetrating American markets, and in providing American consumers with affordable products of superior quality, focused great attention upon Japanese styles of industrial most minute difference in the depth of a bow is significant in establishing relative place in the hierarchy.

The paradox of hierarchy is that it makes it easier for seniors to accept input from juniors (to borrow from military terminology, the military being the most hierarchical walk of American life). Because the hierarchical ranking is so clearly understood by all, a senior can adopt a junior’s ideas without his own place in the hierarchy being threatened. In contrast, in the more individualist culture of bossdom, there is — at least for the intermediate boss — always a latent threat of usurpation in accepting suggestions from below.

If the subordinate’s suggestions are adopted, the question is raised as to whether the boss is really necessary. If X simply follows Y’s suggestions, perhaps Y should really have X’s job. Communications Patterns American managers at one Japanese-owned corporate subsidiary in the United States found themselves effectively shut out of the management communications loop by a subtle mechanism of exclusion: “Eventually, some of the Americans concluded that the real business of running the company was taking place after-hours in meetings among the Japanese in local restaurants” (Byham, 1993,

Buydstyle Online Ordering System

CHAPTER 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. 1 Scope and Limitation The proposed system for BUYDSTYLE Online Shop is an integration of various key functions existing in any business system, including: sales; registration and ordering; pricing; and inventory operations, in one web-based and automated structure. Through its web-based interface, consumers are being presented with complete details of the variety of items to choose from and buy: from prices to sizes; and from colors to themes. Due to time constraint, the system has not been able to be designed to produce avatar aides for consumer fittings; instead, images of scaled product sizes are presented.

Online registration of consumers ensures real time documentation of essential data needed about the customers and the seller. This serves as security for the transacting parties by setting up the maximum amount of items per customer and holding of personal data to back up transactions. The cart system is also incorporated in the ordering operation to organize the sales, pricing, and billing processes. The system, however, does not cover the confirmation of orders and delivery notifications as these will be handled through manual sending of emails, a process that is much effective with varying orders from different customers.

Report Generation is limited to the system’s capability to account items still on hand or sold aiding the timely replenishment of stocks. The decision on which and how much of a particular item should be restocked depends on the seller’s discretion and manual actions. Thus, future development of this system may consider concentrating in inventory reorder area. Unlike Facebook and Multiply, which have already gained popularity and have enticed more potential consumers to visit profile turned online shops, BUYDSTYLE Online Shop system has to rely still on rigid efforts to advertise its products. CHAPTER 2

SOFTWARE PROJECT PROPOSAL 2. 1 Company Background BuyDStyle is clothing and accessories business owned by Abigail Sacdalan founded in 2008. Ms. Sacdalan started merely ordering clothes online for herself but not long after she decided ordering more for sale; the business was primarily referenced to Goth style but latterly spawned to other variety styles as her customers’ range expanded in number. The BuyDStyle products were advertised online, specifically posted in accounts on social networks such as Facebook and Multiply, they are ordered abroad and then shipped in the Philippines to sell. 2. 2 System Background

BuyDStyle uses a manual system. In order to get supplies the owner fills up a form given by the supplier and with it the products are shipped to her afterwards, for products’ update the supplier informs her of any new product via email. When Ms. Sacdalan receives the products she shots a photo of each of them and uploads them to either Facebook or Multiply account for advertisement. When a customer orders she redirects them to a form in BuyDStyle’s Multiply account which the customer will fill out. After submission, the payment and order-release transaction takes place via e-mail updates and text messaging.

She keeps records of customers in a notebook and in her inbox; for their contact numbers she keeps the in her cellular phone’s phonebook. As for the inventory, she keeps records of her order in another notebook also and keeps the forms given back by the supplier which she has filled out during the ordering process after submitting it to them. Customers’ who doesn’t respond to her updates on text messages and e-mails are removed from her records after numerous attempts. Payment methods are made through Globe GCash, bank deposit (BPI), COD (meet-up), Money Transfer (Western Union, LBC Pera Padala).

While the order/s release are performed through either meeting-up on a specified location or delivery (JRS Express, AIR21 and LBS Express). 2. 3 Statement of the Problem BuyDStyle’s current system is manual and the owner is using social networking sites to advertise the product for sale, stating these problems occur as that: •SAVING AND MAINTAINING CUSTOMER’S DATA Since the current system of Buy d Style doesn’t have its own database, retrieving and saving records became difficult resulting to redundant process of customers submitting their information every time they will order an item. MANUAL PLACING OF ORDERS FOR CUSTOMERS With the entity’s current system, customers must remember or take note of the information (i. e. Product Name or Item Code) of the product they will purchase for the purpose of placing their orders which is done by filling up an order form that will contain their information and the information of the product they want to purchase. •MANUAL STOCKS INVENTORY In the current system the owner manually check and change the number of stocks she has for the items she is selling every time a purchase or transaction is done. •MANUAL SALES REPORT

The owner of Buy d Style, with its current system, manually creates and computes the transactions done in her business for her weekly sales report. 2. 4 Objectives The proponents aim to computerize BuyDStyle’s current manual system and also to make it online, in detail it is aimed to: •MAKE SAVING AND RETRIEVING OF CUSTOMER’S INFORMATION EASIER THROUGH THE USE OF DATABASE. With the proposed Online Ordering System for Buy d Style, customers will be ask to sign-up and fill up needed information only once, and will just have to log-in every time they will order items. PROVIDE CART SYSTEM FOR THE PURCHASES OF THE CUSTOMERS Buy d Style Online Shop will provide a virtual cart that will hold the items that the customers pick from the catalog and show a provisional total cost of the item he/she have in his/her cart. But at the same time, allowing still the customers to remove, add or change those items as long as he/she is not submitting the orders yet. •COMPUTERIZED UPDATING OF STOCKS INVENTORY With the use of database for managing the entity’s product, the proposed system will automatically update the number of stock left for every item every time a successful transaction is made. ENSURE AN ACCURATE SALES INVENTORY AND SALES EVALUATION THROUGH REPORT GENERATION Through computerized sales report generation, accuracy of the said report which is important in a business will be guarantee. CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 3. 1 Fact Finding Techniques 3. 1. 2 Interview One of the proponents interviewed the owner of BuyDStyle, the following are the transcribed questions and answers during the interview. Note that this transcription is shorter than the actual interview for some parts have already been included in a former chapter.

Q1: Your business has been up for 3 years and still running, having chosen Facebook and Multiply as your “virtual store”, what made you stick to using them? A: Since I’m an I. T. student, access to the Internet is easy for me. I can manage the two accounts without hustle and, of course, we all know that at present most people spend more time” tuning” on social networking sites, specifically Facebook and Multiply, than watching TV, so with that my sales advertisement gets good with that. Q2: Do you have any sales strategy? How about dilemmas related to it?

A: I do, I always think of designs for the customers to get varieties. So they won’t be just plain but eye-catching. Lack on product stocks are often the problem since I’ve got a lot of buyers. Q3: In your existing manual system, how do you keep track of order records and even your customer/s information? A: I submit a form they gave to me for ordering, when they give it back I keep them, meron din akong notebook kung sa’n sinusulat ko din dun yung inventory and orders that I had. As for my customers’ information I also keep them on a notebook and saves the form they’ve filled up upon their first order.

Q4: For the proposed online shop system, do you have any required functionalities or anything? A: I think I don’t have any, as long as it’s user-friendly and the interface to be attractive at least. 3. 1. 2 Document Review Based on the interview and analysis this online ordering shop is needed for a better sales advertisement and inventory. The owner of BuyDStyle Online Shop is using social networking sites to meet the stated necessities; there is no existing computerized system, only manual –such as manual inventory nd sending of transactions information. To create the system, the proponents will be using the programming languages of Visual Studio 2008 Professional for the coding of interface and system structure, and MySQL for database purposes. In addition, the Linear Model (Waterfall) is being used as a guide for the proposed system, furthermore, the system will not only be composed of modules pertaining to the online shop that has catalogs but also of the module on inventory and report generation which is solely for the owner’s use. 3. Description of the Current System BuyDStyle Online Shop only advertises its products through social networking sites and manages no existing computerized system. Manual computation, inventory and sales’ transaction is the system being used by the owner. 3. 3Summarization of the Major Processes As stated above the entity neither owns nor uses any computerized system but only manual, thus, division of major processes is non-existent to such type of system. 3. 4 Graphical Representation of the Current System Figure 3. 1 DFD of the Existing System

The figure above illustrates the manual system that the owner of BuyDStyle Online Shop has, it includes the transaction of sales ordering through the social networking sites of either Facebook or multiply and the delivery transaction via e-mail. 3. 5 Control and Responsibility There are no existing departments involved in the manual system since it is manual and the owner is the sole operator of the business. 3. 6 Problems under the Current System 1. ADVERTISING INTERRUPTIONS As we all know Facebook and Multiply is created primarily for social networking or social communication and not for selling products.

We have to remember that most people who visit social networks are there for personal reasons and for leisure. Most are not enticed to buy products. Facebook entrepreneurs must know when not to invade too much personal space of other members. 2. CUSTOMERS’ DOUBTS AND FEARS Since anyone can create accounts on social networking sites so easily (and as many accounts as they want), threats of bogus sellers will not be good in winning the customers’ trust. It would look risky for them to commit on such deal since there will be money involved. . SHOP’S ACCOUNT PAGE CUSTOMIZATION As much as the sellers want to come up with a unique and eye-catching web pages for their online store, either Multiply and Facebook only has a uniform, if not minimal, profile design and/or modification. Design and personalizing one’s page would not solely stand-out with a lot of other Facebook members and sellers on site compared to owned hosted sites. 4. WEBPAGE OWNERSHIP Since the social networking sites are not of the owner’s, the online shop is at possible risk of being shut down anytime. . DATABASE ISSUE The BuyDStyle Online Shop owner does not have full control of a database which is an essential for a business owner since social networking sites are what is used, thus, limited publishing of sales’ advertisement and the likes. Furthermore, •Both Facebook and Multiply donot provide databases for business people going for business transaction using their sites. Sellers must create their own separate databases (if knowledgeable in creating one) but still have to input all their transaction details manually. Since there is no computerized database to monitor and generate inventory of the products, it will be another job for the seller to manually do it from time to time and the accuracy is not at all time reliable. •Without a computerized database, keeping track of customer records would be difficult specifically when the owner has a lot of patrons. 6. PRODUCT PRESENTATION Both Multiply and Facebook seller’s only have one way of presenting their products which is through posting photo samples on photo albums.

There are times that sellers tend to have lots of albums in their online store with no proper categories at all. Making it time consuming for customers to browse all of it just to find a good item for them. 7. POSSIBILITY OF THE OWNER’S OR SHOP’S ACCOUNT TO BE HACKED Social networking sites like Multiply and Facebook are usually one of the targets of any hackers in stealing accounts. This is why the possibility for the owner’s account to be hacked is another of the big threats. 3. 7 Company Requirements for the New System The proposed system was designed accordingly to what the company wants for it.

It has different functionalities that support the capacity and the ability of the system to perform specific tasks. Here are some of the requirements for the system that are needed for its implementation: ? Cart System ?Report Generator •Weekly Sales Report (has a ready-to-print form) ?Database •Customer’s Data •Summary of Product being purchased ?Separate Log-in of Admin and the User itself ?User-friendly interface As for the company’s requirements for the system, the interface being appealing to any visitor on the site and user-friendly navigation controls that would be easy to use is the fore concerns.

CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN DOCUMENTATION 4. 1 Preface BuyDStyle had no existing computerized system thus, this Online Ordering Shop was decided to be created so to generally help the beneficiary gain a wider access to a larger range of customers, the owner of the entity is currently using social networking sites for getting the products’ advertised online but such method presented limitations as to a full control of the entities account on social networking sites.

This Online Ordering System of BuyDStyle does not only have the aim of helping the owner gain a wider access to a large range of customers but also to make the entity’s management of online account convenient. 4. 2 Description of the Proposed System The proposed BuyDstyle online shopping system has two modules, one for the customer and the other for the administrator. The customer/s’ is viewed and used via Internet, free registration and login are needed to be able to order products from the business. Catalogues for products’ viewing and choosing are included in it also the cart system to make ordering online much easier and convenient.

As for the administrator’s part, management of stocks (addition and editing) are featured in the proposed system along with the viewing of pending orders and editing of registered customer/s’ information in any case of changes in it. The administrator’s module includes viewing of a weekly summary of sales report that is ready for printing as well. The proposed system is expected to aid the problems of the business’ existing manual system with its automatic generation of sales reports, easy inventory, its being online based and convenient stocks’ management.

Improper Waste Disposal

Improper Disposal of Garbage In Brgy. Guinhalaran, Proper, Silay City Abstract Proper waste disposal minimizes and reduces the risk of accidental injury to staff, clients, visitors and the local community and it helps provide an aesthetically pleasing atmosphere. It also reduces odors and reduces the likelihood of contamination of the soil or ground water with chemicals or micro organisms. Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which maybe broken down by the other living organisms.

Non-biodegradable is a type of waste that cannot be broken down by other living organisms. Acknowledgement The researchers would like to thank their parents who were always supporting them in all of their needs and activities doing their research and survey and they would like also to thank their teacher-in-charge Ms. Lily Cuenca for her support and understanding in their time of needs in their research and survey. They would like also to thank the research and survey teams who made it possible for this to be a success because without them working as one this would not have been possible.

Table of Contents Pages • Introduction ———————- 1 • Review of Literature ———————- 2 • Methodology ——————— 3 • Results and findings ———————- 4 • Conclusion ——————– 5 • Recommendation ——————– 6 • Bibliology ——————– 7 Introduction Improper Disposal of Garbage As the member of people increases in a certain place, the state of being industrialized is also increasing. So, it tells us that the waste management is becoming a serious problem not only in the Philippines but also all over the world. Proper way of waste disposal is the most crucial issue to the public, especially to the health of people and the effect of it in the environment. In order to prevent this kind of problem in our society, we must learn proper disposal of garbage.

As what the researchers had observed, the Brgy. Guinhalaran is trying to maintain the cleanliness of their surroundings to made it more beautiful and far from diseases. • Review of Literature The researchers provide a questionnaire that was related to their topic and to be answered by the residents to know how the people of Brgy. Guinhalaran manage their garbage in everyday ways and they also take some pictures during their survey to show how the particular place look like. • Methodology

The researchers gave a survey form survey form or a questionnaire to every resident in the particular place where the researchers held their survey to know how the residents manage their garbage in their everyday ways. They worked with the respondents of Brgy. Guinhalaran and many of them is high school graduate and only few residents are college graduate. • Conclusion The residents of Brgy. Guinhalaran should keep their surroundings clean to They organized and recorded the experimental data by tallying the opinion of the residents and making a graph to show the result of their survey.