In response to the demands of an agricultural economic system, President Abraham Lincoln established the United States Department of Agriculture in 1862. Since its origin, the USDA has provided aid to husbandmans, educated rural young person, and ensured the production, distribution, and nutritionary value of nutrients. Although farm related research was conducted within USDA, it was non until 1953 that the Agricultural Research Service ( ARS ) was created as the chief in-house research bureau charged with work outing agricultural jobs that affect Americans including the safety and quality of nutrients. I joined the ARS as a Research Microbiologist at the National Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa in 1991 where my research focused on nutrient borne pathogens and in peculiar commanding Salmonella in swine. Salmonella is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen which can be passed between animate beings and worlds chiefly through contaminated groceries. I studied the transmittal and continuity of Salmonella within swine herds in an effort to develop extenuation and control schemes. A lookout determination was the observation that Salmonella can besides be transmitted aerogenously. This was of import as tenet described Salmonella as a fecal-oral pathogen. The fact that it could be transmitted by aerosols was a critical observation in the development of extenuation schemes.
Acknowledging that the development of antimicrobic opposition was emerging as a planetary job my work besides included survey of the development of opposition to disinfectants used in veterinary and human medical specialty. This is of import as antimicrobic usage in animate beings may take to the development of immune nutrient borne and commensal bacteriums. If immune bacteriums are transferred to worlds and disinfectants are warranted to command disease ( peculiarly in the immature, the aged and the immunocompromised ) , they may be less effectual and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In 1996 the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ( NARMS ) plan was established as a partnership between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) , and the U.S. Department of Agriculture ( USDA ) . While the FDA and CDC focused on antimicrobic opposition in nutrient borne and commensal bacteriums from retail meats and worlds, severally, I became the USDA lead and focused on antimicrobic opposition in bacteriums isolated from animate beings. NARMS is recognized globally and has served as a theoretical account upon which other states developed opposition monitoring plans.
Following a transportation to the ARS research lab in Athens, GA in 1997 I was selected as Research Leader for the freshly formed Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit. This afforded me the alone and rare chance to construct a research plan from origin. I later hired six scientists and 20 plus staff members to analyze the continuity and transmittal of antimicrobic immune nutrient borne and commensal bacteriums isolated from animate beings. In 2004, I besides envisioned a complementary plan to the CDCs PulseNet plan, USDA VetNet, which serves to qualify the relatedness of nutrient borne pathogens at the molecular degree. This is critical when following the beginning ( s ) of taint during nutrient borne eruptions.
I am a big-picture individual with a high grade of research acumen ; I know what it takes to non merely construct a plan, but to prolong it in unsure times. I was confident in my ability to construct alliances within the research and client communities but less confident in my ability to construct alliances at the political and international degrees. My supervisor recommended the Leadership for a Democratic Society class as a agency of measuring my potency at the executive degree. Following completion of the class I realized that completion of the LEAD Certificate plan would supply extra tools to construct alliances at the executive, political and international degrees. This paper describes the leading lessons learned and my growing as a leader.
Course Content Highlights, Lessons Learned and Applications:
Leadership for a Democratic Society ( LDS ) . I completed this class on 4/2/2010 using the split 2 hebdomad format. LDS provided a wide overview of the demands needed for taking a planetary society every bit good as enabling participants to research single strengths and failings as current leaders. We were expected to show leading within a little group every bit good as within the category. Self-awareness was a cardinal constituent of the class and we were afforded the chance for future development through survey of the yesteryear. Prior to LDS I did non to the full understand the value and demand of ‘knowing one ‘s ego ‘ at the deepest degree possible. I believed I knew who I was ; now I know who I was non. The demands placed upon today ‘s leaders require that we meet challenges head on, repair jobs rapidly and good, and implement a vision for the hereafter. Our sires provided priceless illustrations of leading that have transcended clip.
Lessons learned: It is incumbent that we non endure burnout. This can merely be achieved by taking attention of ourselves both physically and mentally. Working smart versus long hours is critical when taking people. Burnout can be peculiarly troublesome when mental weariness sets in and underperformance becomes the norm. Understanding the impact physical and mental wellness has on an organisation is peculiarly of import to travel an organisation forward and trade with crisis as it arises. Humor is besides an of import constituent of leading. Showing that there are light minutes can beef up coactions every bit good as mitigate emphasis. True leaders keep their self-importances in cheque.
The importance of understanding our ain personality penchant every bit good as those of staff members can non be underemphasized. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) personality stock list and the 360 instrument are tools used to understand direction penchant and supply a perceptual experience of how others see us. It was priceless to specify my personality type ( ENFP ) and the difference between equal, subsidiary and supervisor ratings. It was besides enlightening to understand that equals see the terminal consequence while staff members live the direction manner of their leader. I did non cover with struggle good. Understanding the beginning of struggle, deciding struggle rapidly, and supplying a agency to extenuate future struggle is critical for organisational productiveness and enlargement. Conflict declaration is difficult ; disregarding struggle is a catastrophe. Avoiding struggle is impossible.
Nowhere did we larn that any one leader was, or is, perfect. Government was and continues to be imperfect. These were lessons from great leaders including Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Adams, and James Madison. An person ‘s beliefs and strong beliefs form the footing for set uping their values. In an article by Bill George et Al. published in the Harvard Business Review in February 2007, leading rules were described as ‘values translated into action ‘ . No one individual can understand their true set of values until they are tested in hard times. True leaders are self-conscious, demonstrate unwavering values in hard times, and construct alliances that provide position and support in both good and hard times. Our establishing male parents were true leaders. Emulating leading as embraced by our establishing male parents in today ‘s society requires no less committedness to our values. Further, we must besides hold a clear apprehension of the values embraced by planetary spouses. Without this, struggle is inevitable.
Senior Executive Assessment Program. This class was completed on 12/10/2010 and provided an overview of the demands and outlooks of a senior executive, described the five Executive Core Qualifications, and provided an appraisal of our preparedness and potency to come in the Senior Executive Service. A common subject carried over from LDS included the demand for self-awareness. My 360 instrument demonstrated the positive alterations in perceptual experience that occurred following execution of disciplinary actions sing my ability to pull off struggle.
Lessons learned: The five highest rated leading competences include ( in diminishing order of rank ) integrity/honesty, leveraging diverseness, interpersonal accomplishments, proficient credibleness, and partnering. Leveraging diverseness is required for cultural transmutation and both are required to do our work force more diverse, inclusive and representative. This is critical as we expand our planetary partnerships. Airy leaders embrace diverseness and purchase each individual ‘s alone part to run into concern aims. While honestness and unity are absolute demands for leading, merely leaders that embrace a ‘multi-everything ‘ workplace will accomplish success in a planetary culturally complex society.
I understand that desiring to be a senior executive and put to deathing as a senior executive are reciprocally sole. While extremely competent leaders are the anchor of many organisations, non all leaders are able to work at an executive degree. Executives must be able to put to death and function new leading while equilibrating continuity and alteration. They must hold good founded and grounded values, understand that people who work within the organisation are their greatest hoarded wealth, and supply a vision for the hereafter. Work life balance is critical and continues as a subject from LDS. Prior to using for a senior executive place an honorable appraisal of one ‘s abilities, values, tolerance for forfeit and ability to interpret vision into action is critical. The most successful senior executive exerts more influence behind the scenes than out in forepart of the organisation ; they determine whether an organisations survives ( good ) through turbulent times.
Having a passion for one ‘s work strongly influences success. The Passion Revealer Assessment provided an analysis of activities in which a individual is most likely to win. Therefore, the success of an organisation can hinge upon guaranting complementary passions among executives. This coagulated my position that a senior executive must understand that non everyone within an organisation portions their passion. Guaranting continuity of an organisation can be achieved through a holistic attack, peculiarly in a planetary environment in which the diverseness of passions is magnified.
Leading Through Constructive Conflict. This class was completed on 4/6/2011 and provided an in deepness chance to research the pros and cons of struggle within leading every bit good as extra feedback through completion of the Conflict Dynamics Profile 360. A systems attack to conflict direction was besides described. Conflict is inevitable ; how we deal with struggle consequences in personal growing or devastation. Successful organisations recognize, prevent, and pull off struggle on a continual footing.
Lessons learned: Conflict involves feelings ; frequently these feelings are intense and reflect passion ( good or bad ) about a state of affairs. It was instructional to larn that struggle occurs in all locales, frequently by surprise, escalates through disregard, and provides a existent chance for growing. I was peculiarly struck by the quotation mark from Benjamin Disraeli ‘Never apologize for demoing feeling. When you do so, you apologize for the truth ‘ . Conflict is an emotional response to something we care about ( our truth ) that may non be shared by others. However, if we decide to discourse struggle in an unfastened, impersonal environment free from fright of revenge we can decide struggle in a mode that ensures personal growing. This was a powerful lesson and is evident in organisations in which employees are most satisfied with their workplace environment.
Covering with struggle is difficult and takes work ; alteration occurs in baby stairss. Through feedback from the Conflict Dynamics Profile it was evident that I needed to go on to do alterations in the manner I deal with struggle ; hold in covering with struggle is destructive. The coaching Sessionss were priceless and confirmed that as subsidiaries see positive alteration, they expect it to go on. However, it was besides of import to larn that prosecuting subsidiaries in honorable discourse and specifying their function in pull offing struggle is critical for extenuating future struggle.
Three types of consciousness are critical in conflict direction: ego, squad and organisational. I must understand how I act in struggle and specify my attitudes and beliefs about struggle. I must besides understand how my squad handles struggle and what their attitudes and beliefs are about struggle. Pull offing struggle involves the usage of five manners of behaviour: accommodate, avoid, compete, via media, and collaborate. Each manner can be used as the state of affairs dictates. No manner is ‘right ‘ or ‘wrong ‘ , they merely are and successful leaders utilize all five manners.
Dynamicss of Public Policy. This class was completed on 12/8/2011 and provided an overview of the functions and influence of the President, Congress, media and the public in policy development, execution and credence. There is an interesting and dynamic interplay that occurs within and between each of these participants in policy devising. Each equivalent word for influence ( power, persuasion, force per unit area, sway, authorization, weight, control and use ) has a really different significance and is used by each participant in different ways and at different times during policy devising.
Lessons learned: Development policy involves 10 distinct processes the most of import of which is plan acceptance ( besides known as the way of statute law ) . Problems can be defined, agendas set, and policy formulated. However, a agency for budgeting and allowing financess, set uping ordinances, scheduling execution, measuring and revising and altering the policy hinges on legislative blessing of the policy. Power webs ( stakeholders and determination shapers ) are some of the most influential participants during this portion of the procedure. A critical lesson for leaders is the demand to affect stakeholders early in the procedure to guarantee policy support.
A simple definition of public policy is whatever the authorities chooses to make or non to make. Public sentiment is frequently gathered through the usage of polls. How strongly the public feels about an issue affects canvassing consequences. Therefore, it is of import to attach a degree of transparence to canvassing inquiries – does a individual ‘care ‘ about the issue. It was really informative to deconstruct several methods employed by groups mensurating public sentiment. Methods can change significantly between groups and consequence in significantly different results. Therefore, it is critical when measuring public sentiment to understand the methods used by the polling group ( s ) .
Possibly the most influential participant in the policy procedure is the media. They can drive public sentiment and frequently reassign their ain sentiment to act upon the policy procedure. Reading a broad assortment of documents affords a speedy overview of the comprehensiveness and deepness of differences in public sentiment related to a policy. By presuming the function of newsman during the category I demonstrated the easiness with which ‘spin ‘ can be used to act upon sentiment. Understanding the power of the written word is of import regardless of whether a policy is government-wide or bureau specific.
Leadership for a Global Society. This class was completed on 8/24/2012 and provided an overview of the intercultural communications and consciousness required to take within a planetary society. Leading and act uponing planetary spouses involves constructing alliances, negociating, partnering and join forcesing. The function of the United States in the universe every bit good as with specific states including China, Russia, Latin America, and Europe were explored.
Lessons learned: Adoption of a fundamental law sets the phase for set uping a political system within a state or part. A ‘rule of jurisprudence ‘ is established. Sham fundamental laws have no agencies of keeping power. Partnering on a planetary degree requires leaders to understand how each state establishes its authorities and enforces its Torahs. This provides a true trial of one ‘s values in tough times peculiarly when opposing constitutional states must interact. ‘Know thyself ‘ as an person must be elevated to ‘know thy state ‘ . This is a far greater challenge and duty required of planetary leaders.
While there is a common planetary linguistic communication and the same words are used in many states, these same words frequently have different significances in different states. Therefore, interlingual rendition is critical. This is best achieved through partnership with sure and knowing spouses.
Negotiations require an credence that attitudes and relationships are every bit of import as negociating accomplishments. Knowing what makes you a stakeholder ( principle-based involvement ) is a cardinal constituent of the dialogue procedure in add-on to effectual communicating, productive instruction, and responsible usage of power. Global leaders understand what their bounds are, what consequences they want to accomplish and that everyone squad member must hold equal ownership of the procedure.
END Note: Each lesson can be applied at every degree within an organisation. Successful organisations will supply chances for employees to go self-conscious, manage struggle, communicate efficaciously, influence work units, and negotiate with equals who hold wholly different values, positions and degrees of expertness.
Leadership Growth and Development
The 2 most of import lessons I learned involved self-awareness and the value of struggle. Not merely must I know who I am, I must besides cognize who I can go. This involves understanding my leading strengths and failings and continually modifying my leading manner to maximise my strengths while minimising the impact of my failings. Conflict can besides supply a enormous chance for larning and growing.
I was peculiarly inspired by the teachers in the LDS category. The class content was presented in a mode that left me desiring to cognize more. During the interruption between Sessionss I was motivated to read extra books on leading. I was besides inspired through the evening treatments with teachers during the Leadership for a Global Society class. They have an enviable cognition of planetary personal businesss and shared singular narratives of interactions with our planetary spouses.
In treatment with teachers I came to understand that weaknesses provide chances for growing and that I alone command my leading manner. I chose to prosecute the LEAD Certificate as a consequence of the encouragement and feedback I received from teachers in each of these five classs. They enabled me to see that I am a competent and compassionate leader with vision. My definition of leading is ‘bringing out the best in people to run into organisational ends ‘ . A leader is non defined by a squad of 1.
Actions Taken or Planned
I arranged for my squad to take the MBTI which included treatment of our personality types within the group. Further I besides arranged for direction on important conversations and pull offing struggle. As a consequence of these activities tensenesss, which had been constructing, were mitigated. On a personal degree I now meet conflict head-on and encompass the chance to discourse the struggle which is frequently based on two different positions of accomplishing the same result. Now, staff are more likely to discourse and decide struggle foremost as they understand that I will cover with unsolved struggle instantly. It is my purpose to supply farther self-awareness chances for myself and staff members to guarantee that high productiveness is maintained.
Feedback on the LEAD Program ( optional and non rated )
While I liked everything about the LEAD Program I was most impressed with the Leadership for a Democratic Society category. LDS set the phase for every other class and I was more than impressed that the lessons and subjects learned in LDS were repeated in subsequent categories. I extremely promote you to keep this format and the lessons taught. They have become an priceless portion of my leading manner.
One alteration I would do is the proviso for followup over clip to measure what is go oning to work and what is n’t.
Leadership is complex, dynamic, and requires continual reappraisal. One cardinal constituent of leading is self-awareness which includes an apprehension of one ‘s values. True leaders maintain their values during hard times. Common themes resonated in each class: self-awareness, constructive struggle, diverseness, influence and dialogue. Global leading requires an apprehension of the values and ends of each state we spouse with. With the enlargement of travel, deforestation, and outgrowth of new and deathly diseases the USDA must be prepared to run into the challenges of bring forthing and guaranting the safety of nutrients on a planetary degree. It is my end to get an executive degree place and develop nutrient safety policy at the planetary degree.
U.S. Office of Personnel Management
Leadership Education and Development ( LEAD ) Certificate
Capstone Paper Review & A ; Rating
To be completed by OPM staff
Candidate ‘s Name: _______________________________ Date of Review: ________
Degree of LEAD Certificate ( Check one ) : A? Team Lead A? Supervisor A? Manager
A? Executive A? Professional Leader
Evaluator Name: _______________________________________
Rater Instruction manuals: Please reexamine the LEAD Capstone paper and bespeak your evaluations against the Capstone paper counsel. Your Overall Rating will be taken as the evaluation of record. Please provide remarks as you deem appropriate. If your initial Overall Rating is Fail, delight supply remarks that will help the campaigner in re-writing the Capstone to make a Base on balls evaluation. Once you have determined your concluding evaluation, delight e-mail this signifier to Claire Thurston for farther processing. Thank you for your clip.
Course Content Highlights, Lessons Learned and Applications
Leadership Growth and Development
Actions Taken or Planned
Feedback on the LEAD Program ( optional and non rated )
Capstone Paper Format