Solar Energy And Photovoltaic Systems Environmental Sciences Essay

The Greek energy market is at the head of important alterations. New investors are attracted and the state is emerging as the energy hub of southeast Europe. An aggressive thrust for renewable beginnings is expected to play a critical function in energy supply and the state is at the Centre of important growing chances. It is anticipated that solar energy will go the core constituent of the state ‘s energy profile and experts consider that the solar market will turn significantly in the following decennaries.

Resource Availability

Solar energy is one of the most of import energy beginnings. Not merely is it pollution-free, it helps reduces the nursery consequence, costs nil and can be converted to other signifiers of energy such as heat and electricity comparatively easy. Its location and its favourable climatic conditions make Greece an ideal topographic point to use the abundant solar radiation. With more than 300 yearss of sunlight yearly, its solar potency is ranked among the best worldwide. The mean one-year irradiation of 1800kWh/m2 [ 1 ] is about 50 % higher than that of Germany, which is the taking European state in footings of solar energy development. Furthermore, Greece holds the 6th topographic point in the universe sing its solar index.

Figure 1: Solar map of Greece [ 19 ] Therefore, Greece has a superb Sun radiation capacity and it is estimated that one tierce of its energy demands could be met with solar energy [ 2 ] . Solar energy already plays an of import function in the energy profile of the state and it is anticipated that its part will increase in the close hereafter.

Solar market size

3.1 Solar thermal Market

The Greek solar thermic market is one of the most advanced worldwide. Greece is fifth in installings per capita following Cyprus, Israel, Barbados and Austria and is within the top 12 states in footings of entire universe capacity [ 3 ] .

The solar thermic market in Greece started in the center of the nineteen-seventies with the first monolithic gross revenues of solar aggregators. In the period between 1984 and 1986, an drawn-out advertisement run sponsored by the Grecian authorities boosted well. From 1987 to 1993 the solar thermal merchandises improved significantly in quality and the market stabilised. Within the following decennary the solar thermic merchandises became a proven and dependable engineering and the market became practically stable with little fluctuations in gross revenues. Figure 2 illustrates the gross revenues of solar aggregators in Greece from 1980 until 2006 [ 4 ] .

Figure 2: Solar aggregator country ( M2 ) [ 5 ]

During the last decennary, the Greek solar thermal market has managed to turn despite the highly hard economic conditions predominating in the state. This is a important illustration of solar thermic energy potency in a mature market where people know and trust the engineering. In 2008 the sum installed solar thermic capacity peaked at 210MW ( Thursday ) . In 2009 145MW ( Thursday ) were installed and in 2010 150 MW ( Thursday ) . Today the cumulative solar thermal capacity in Greece is above 2,861MW ( Thursday ) with a entire country around 4,100,000m2 [ 6 ] . The market is chiefly centered on thermosyphon solar H2O thermic warmers. While the huge bulk of these are level home base aggregators ( FPC ) ( 293,500 ) , evacuated tubing aggregators ( 4500 ) are used as good [ 3 ] .

A important addition is expected in the market size of the solar thermic systems. The Grecian authorities set really ambitious marks for energy coevals by 2020, in which solar thermal systems are expected to play a critical function. Therefore, harmonizing to European hereafter projections the entire capacity in Greece is expected to make 4,156GWh [ 6 ] .

Furthermore, the solar thermic systems are expected to lend to electricity coevals in the close hereafter. Concentrating solar power workss are already being planned and their sum installed capacity is expected to make 2,200MW by 2020 [ 7 ] .

3.2 Photovoltaic Market

While Greece was the first state in Europe to put in a PV park of 100kV in 1983, the installed capacity did non increase every bit rapidly as expected. Until the terminal of 2006 the market for solar PV was about negligible and the cumulative installed capacity was 6MW. However, in 2006 the Grecian authorities introduced the RES-E jurisprudence, which increased economic inducements, thereby doing the installing of PV economically feasible. Furthermore, the authorities simplified the procedures for little scale installings. These alterations gave a important encouragement to the PV market and in 2008 the cumulative capacity reached 18.5MW. After 2008 the market size of PV, in footings of installed capacity, started to increase highly quickly. In 2011 the annually installed capacity reached 426MW and the Grecian market became the ten percent biggest globally. In 2012 the cumulative installed capacity exceeded 1,500MW [ 6,5,8 ] .

During the last two old ages, the Grecian market size in footings of installed PV systems has increased by over 1GW. This is a important addition, particularly for a state which is traveling through a terrible fiscal crisis. Figure 3 illustrates the cumulative installed capacity of standalone and grid connected PV systems during the last decennary.

Figure 3: Accumulative installed capacity [ 9,10 ]

From figure 3 it is obvious that the photovoltaic market has expanded quickly in recent old ages. In crisp contrast with their slow start, PV applications have become widely accepted. Although the PV market is anticipated to decelerate down due to the recent decrease of the economic inducements, its hereafter still looks really promising.

The Grecian aim of PV installed capacity is to make 2.2GW by 2020. However, it is expected that this will be achieved much earlier, between 2014 and 2016. Independently of the standard market development, the immense ( 10GW ) undertaking Helios has besides been announced, which is expected to increase the Grecian PV solar market size significantly [ 11 ] .

State of solar engineerings fabricating industry and comparing with the international world

4.1 Solar thermal Industry

The Greek solar thermal industry is one of the most successful in the universe, providing both the Hellenic and the European market. Approximately half of the solar thermic systems manufactured in Greece are exported. The Grecian solar thermal merchandises are among the first picks globally and the Grecian fabrication industry has improved in footings of quality and dependability during the last decennary [ 12 ] .

The solar thermic industry sector consists of 700 solar thermal companies, 120 of which are manufacturers of aggregators and storage units. While most of these are little and average sized, there are about 30 big companies active, the most popular of which are Calpak, Sole, Dimas, Maltezos and Intersolar [ 13,14 ] .

As described above, Greece is the 3rd largest solar thermal market in Europe, the fifth in installings per capita globally and within the top 12 states in footings of installed capacity. The sum installed capacity of solar thermic aggregators in Greece constitutes 1.6 % of the planetary cumulative capacity. China leads the universe in cumulative installed capacity with a per centum about 65 % of planetary capacity, followed by Turkey ( 5.1 % ) , Germany ( 5 % ) and Japan ( 2.2 % ) [ 15 ] .

4.2 Photovoltaic Industry

The Grecian PV industry is largely characterized by retail and installing companies. Most of the existent engineerings are imported from abroad. However, there are five companies which are equipped with the production line for the assembly of PV panels and faculties. These companies are the Exel Group, Heliosphera, Silcio/Piritium, Solar Cells Hellas and Stel Solar [ 16 ] . However, the export activity of these companies is really low and their production is much smaller than the largest PV companies in the universe. The cumulative production ability of each of these manufacturers is non above 80MW, which is bantam compared to other European manufacturers. By far the prima state in footings of production is China, followed by Taiwan, Japan and Germany [ 15 ] .

In footings of PV installed capacity, Germany and Italy are the taking states, followed by Japan, Spain and the US. However, during the last five old ages Greece has become one of the taking states worldwide in footings of freshly installed capacity being in 2011 and 2012 among the top 10 [ 17 ] .

Policies, ordinances and inducements for the solar energy sector.

The development of renewable energy beginnings every bit good as their publicity for energy production is defined as an environmental and energy precedence of extreme importance for the state. For this ground, the Grecian authorities has adopted ambitious marks, policies and steps for increasing the usage of renewable energy. Harmonizing to the Grecian statute law, these marks require a RES portion of sum produced energy of 20 % by 2020, which is 2 % higher than its EU duty. It has besides a specific mark to supply 40 % of electricity by the same twelvemonth [ 18 ] .

In order for the 2020 electricity marks to be met, power coevals from RES will necessitate to more than triple from 2012. Photovoltaics in peculiar are expected to be promoted even more. Furthermore, the Public Power Corporation ( PPC ) , the dominant power generator is be aftering to put big sums of money in solar energy.

The energy efficiency policy of Greece is displayed in the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan, published in 2008. This policy includes the mandatory installing of cardinal solar thermic systems in new residential edifices and fiscal inducements for the gradual replacing of the old inefficient thermic power units with efficient 1s. Furthermore, it imposes 60 % coverage of hot H2O demands by solar energy H2O heating systems [ 7 ] .

Furthermore, revenue enhancement tax write-offs are granted for domestic solar thermal applications, amounting to 20 % of the capital cost and potentially making even 700euros per system. There are no other direct economic inducements for solar thermic systems but because of the fact that their market has reached a critical size in Greece, it is capable of being self-supporting [ 7 ] .

Tax tax write-offs are besides granted for photovoltaic systems. Under the Greek Operational Programme of Competitiveness, PV systems receive subsidies from the Grecian province and the European Union [ 7 ] .

The chief inducement policy mechanism that is used to promote investings in electricity coevals from renewable beginnings is the feed-in-tariff. This mechanism offers long term contracts to renewable energy manufacturers. The first Grecian statute law for PV was introduced in 2006, offering really generous monetary values. These monetary values changed in 2012 but are still among the best globally. Depending on the capacity size and the type of the installing, the duty monetary values differ. Table 1 shows the feed-in-tariffs for photovoltaics from 2011 to 2020.

Year

Calendar month

Land mounted and Rooftops

Rooftop systems

& gt ; 100kW

10 & lt ; =100kW

& lt ; 10kW

2011

February

0.372

0.419

0.55

2011

August

0.351

0.394

0.55

2012

February

0.292

0.328

0.495

2012

August

0.18

0.225

0.25

2013

February

0.172

0.215

0.239

2013

August

0.164

0.205

0.228

2014

February

0.157

0.196

0.218

2014

August

0.15

0.187

0.208

Year ‘n ‘ from 2015 onwards

1.3*SMPn-1

1.4*SMPn-1

Tariff Payment

20 old ages

25 old ages

SMP=System Marginal Price

Table 1: Feed-in-Tariffs ( monetary values in euros ) [ 19 ]

In add-on to the economic inducements for the installing of the PV systems, the Grecian authorities has besides simplified the mandate processs. Any citizen who wants to put in a solar system with capacity up to 10kW can make so really easy be merely sing the local electricity company office. This simplification of the procedures has accelerated the PV installings.

Other indirect actuating actions and steps are besides used for the spread of solar thermal and photovoltaic systems. These actions include targeted instruction runs, formation of a unit to roll up energy informations and prognosiss, energy labeling and energy public presentation of edifices.

iˆ¶iˆ®iˆ iˆ Major establishments active on solar energy research

The general secretariat for research and engineering ( GSRT ) supports the research and development activities of public research centres and universities. The chief active research centres in solar energy are the National Technical University of Athens, Heliodromi S.A. , ELPRA S.A. , The University of Patras, the Technical University of Crete and Demokritos research Centre. GSRT besides represents Greece in the European Union ‘s research establishments and is responsible for the constitution of new institutes and centres of engineering for research. Furthermore, the National Council of Research and Technology ( NCRT ) is one of the chief consultative organic structures on R & A ; D policy and supports research undertakings and scientists from Greece and abroad [ 7 ] .

A cardinal participant in the development of solar energy is besides the Centre of Renewable Energy Sources, which is the chief authorities adviser about renewable energy systems, energy efficiency, policies schemes and planning. Furthermore it carries out research and develops advanced engineerings about solar applications [ 13 ] .

Decision

Greece is one of the taking states in the sphere of solar energy globally. Despite the terrible economic recession that has gripped Greece for the past three old ages the state ‘s solar market is considered one of the largest and is expected to spread out even more in the close hereafter. Furthermore, Greece is working to go Europe ‘s largest exporter of solar generated electricity. Therefore, in the center of a drawn-out economic recession, solar energy is expected to play a major function in hiking the state ‘s economic system.

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