Agur the first clip I heard this word I lived in San Sebastian, Basque Country, Spain. It is Basque and it means pass. When I laid on the beach some eldritch linguistic communication I could non understand was spoken over the public reference system and after that linguistic communication followed a Spanish speech production lady stating that a kid had been found. I was fascinated by this linguistic communication, how can it be that it is so different from all the other linguistic communications I know? When I heard about the paper subjects I instantly knew I wanted to happen out more about the Basque linguistic communication and the bilingual system in the Basque Country in Spain. In this paper I will discourse the multilingual history of Spain, describe the state of affairs of the Basque linguistic communication in the Basque state and I will develop more about the educational systems to excite Basque linguistic communication proficiency. I hope to give the reader an penetration in the Basque educational system, the Basque Country itself and in the multilingual history of Spain. This paper consists out of a literature reappraisal on the footing of earlier surveies because it was difficult to happen grounds on my ain.
At first this paper will depict the history of multilingualism in Spain, has the Spanish authorities ever allowed bilingual instruction? Which co-official linguistic communications exist in Spain? Then a closer expression will be taken on the Basque Country: a description of the country will be given, per centums of bilingual talkers, the attitude of Basque talkers towards Basque ; why and when do they talk the linguistic communication? In the following paragraph the educational theoretical accounts that were created by the Basque authorities will be described. These theoretical accounts were created to better the 2nd linguistic communication proficiency in Basque for Spanish-speakers. An overview will be given of the three bing educational theoretical accounts. Finally a paragraph will discourse the attitude of Basque talkers and non-Basque talkers ; where is Basque largely spoken? Why there? Has the figure of pupils analyzing Basque increased of decreased? This paper will be ended with a decision which sums up all the major findings of this paper.
History multilingualism Spain
Spain, as we know it today, is a multilingual state. It consists out of 17 independent communities. Six of these communities ( Catlonia, the Valencian Community, the Balearic islands, Galicia, the Basque Country and Navarre ) recognize a linguistic communication of their ain which is, together with Spanish, the official linguistic communication in their district. All Spanish independent communities have received legislative power in some countries. One of those countries is instruction, so the Spanish independent communities can accommodate their ain regulations on instruction. So all the six communities with their ain linguistic communication can offer instruction in this linguistic communication. This sounds all really positive ; the possibility to learn kids in the ‘minority ‘ linguistic communication and to hold the ‘minority ‘ linguistic communication recognized as being an official linguistic communication.
Yet the ‘life narrative of multilingualism ‘ has non ever been like this. Thankss to historical developments, we can talk of the multilingual state Spain, but multilingualism used to be out during the absolutism of General Franco ( 1939-1975 ) . After the Civil War ( 1936-1939 ) General Franco came in power and this put an terminal to the 2nd democracy. During Franco ‘s government he declared Spanish as the lone official linguistic communication, and Franco forced the minority languages to vanish from the public spheres ; they could non be used in the media, public disposal nor in instruction. The usage of the linguistic communications was limited to domestic usage, the people could merely talk their linguistic communication in their places and non on the street, at work or other public topographic points. When Franco ‘s government came to an terminal, Spain established a democracy and a new Constitution was passed ( 1978 ) . Many new ordinances were adapted and the new Statues of Autonomy were passed. These statues divided Spain in the undermentioned independent communities: Arag & A ; oacute ; n, Asturias, the Balearic Islands, the Basque Country, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla-Leon, Catalonia, Ceuta and Melilla, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia and Navarra. The state was non merely divided into different countries, some countries besides retrieved an official position for their ain linguistic communication, which was the instance for Catalan, Basque and Galician. Spanish became the official linguistic communication of the Spanish province, but the independent communities can hold an ain functionary linguistic communication following to Spanish. This meant that all the minority languages in Spain were acknowledged. Nowadays Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearic Islands, the Basque state and Galicia have two official linguistic communications ; Spanish and the official linguistic communication of their district.
All the Parliaments of the above mentioned communities together created the Laws of Linguistic Normalization in 1983. This was a reaction on the government of Franco. The Torahs non merely gave minority languages the co-official position next excessively Spanish, but besides the right to cognize and utilize the other linguistic communication in any context, the rule of no favoritism on lingual evidences and control of the educational system, civilization and media to the liberties ( Huguet et al. 2008 ) . Another purpose of the Laws of Linguistic Normalization is to guarantee that pupils have a balanced bid of Spanish and their 2nd linguistic communication by the clip they leave school. This purpose has led to Catalan, Valencian, Balearic, Navarrese, Basque and Galician educational systems to make bilingual schools where female parent lingua Spanish talkers can develop their linguistic communication competency in the minority linguistic communication ( Lasagbaster and Huguet, 2007, Huguet, et al 2008 ) . During the last 20 old ages bilingual instruction has increased in Spain. The Laws of Linguistic Normalization give liberties the right to develop their ain educational systems following a bilingual standard. A description of the educational system in the Basque Country can be found on p. 8 of this paper.
Figure Map of Spanish bilingual communities
In figure 1 ( Huguet, et al 2008 ) the communities with their ain official linguistic communication besides Spanish are highlighted: the Balaeric islands ( where Catalan is spoken ) , the Basque Country and Navarre ( where Basque is spoken ) , Galicia ( where Galician is the minority linguistic communication ) and Valencia ( where Valencian is spoken ) . The independent communities of Aragon ( where both Catalan and Aragonese are spoken ) and Asturias ( where Asturias is spoken ) are besides added to the figure. In Aragon and Asturias the minority linguistic communications have no legal position.
Tabel Percentage of inviduals who ‘can understand ‘ and ‘can speak ‘ the minority linguistic communication ( Huguet et al, 2008 )
The Balearic Islands
The Basque Country
Persons who can ‘understand ‘
( passive )
Persons who can ‘speak ‘ ( active )
This tabular array shows an tremendous difference between the communities. In Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearic Islands and Galicia over 90 % of the population can understand the minority linguistic communication and many ( although less than 90 % ) can besides talk the minority linguistic communication. Yet in the Basque Country and Navarra the per centums are much lower, less than 50 % of the population can understand the minority linguistic communication and even a lower per centum can talk it. But in the instance of the Basque Country, many things are done to better the state of affairs of the minority linguistic communication as we will discourse in the following paragraphs.
The Basque state
The Basque state covers an country of about 20,742 square kilometers and is divided into seven states: three belonging to the Gallic ‘Pyren & A ; eacute ; es Atlantiques ‘ community ( Lapurdi, Nafarroa, Beherea and Zuberoa ) , and four to two independent parts in Spain ( The Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre ) . In this paper the state of affairs of the Basque Autonomous Community ( BAC ) will be described. The entire Basque population exists out of 3 million dwellers, with 92 % being Spanish citizens. In the BAC live around 2.1 million dwellers, of which 24.7 % are bilingual and 16.3 % are inactive bilingual. Basque is a minority linguistic communication spoken by merely 27 % of the population. The Basque linguistic communication is the lone non-Indo-European linguistic communication in Western Europe and although the linguistic communication has been in touch with many Roman linguistic communications ( Spanish, Gallic, Catalan ) , it is wholly unrelated to them. This is likely one of the most of import grounds why so few people of the Basque population ( about 60 % ) do non understand Basque at all. The linguistic communication differs so much from Spanish and other Roman languages in Spain that it has no interface with other linguistic communications in the state.
Spanish is the first functionary and dominant linguistic communication in BAC, so that makes all Basque talkers bilingual because they speak Spanish and Basque. Since Spanish is besides the dominant linguistic communication is makes proficiency in Basque non necessary in many countries. ( Perez Vidal, .. ) The monolingual Spanish talkers in the BAC do non needfully necessitate the Basque linguistic communication to last in the BAC. Everyone around them speaks English, in formal scenes the linguistic communication spoken is largely Spanish, the media largely publishes in Spanish, and so everything around them is in Spanish. This particularly counts for the bigger metropoliss, such as Bilbao or San Sebasti & A ; aacute ; n ( Donostia in Basque ) . In smaller small towns in the state side there are more people who speak Basque and talking Basque becomes more of a necessity.
Thankss to the publicity of Basque in schools there has been an addition of 95,000 Basque talkers from 1981 to 1991 ( Garmendia 1994, Perez Vidal.. ) and in the following decennary ( 1991-2001 ) the per centum of bilinguals in the scope of 16-24 old ages old has about doubled, from 25 % to 48 % ( Gobierno Vasco, 2003 ; Huguet 2008 ) . Basque is in the procedure of ‘reversing linguistic communication displacement ‘ ( Fishman 1991, Cenoz 2005 ) . Change by reversaling linguistic communication displacement is seting a halt to the worsening usage of a linguistic communication and increasing its position in the population. Joshua Fishman created eight stairss in which a dead or threatened linguistic communication can be brought back to ‘life ‘ . The Basque linguistic communication is in the procedure of being revitalised.
The Basque linguistic communication is used more and more by the Basque population and the attitudes towards the linguistic communication are progressively positive. Basque is used as a medium of direction, on the Basque telecasting channel, on the Basque wireless and in Basque newspapers. Even though the usage of the Basque linguistic communication additions, the other official linguistic communication of BAC, Spanish, is used more for these intents. So Basque is present in the media of the BAC, yet Spanish takes a bigger function and is more used in the Basque media. But a high per centum of Bascophones do utilize the media in Basque ; 77 % of the Basque bilinguals listen to the Basque wireless and 82 % watches the Basque telecasting ( Cenoz 2005 ) .
Bascophones speak Basque in the private sphere and they tend to utilize Spanish for formal scenes. Bascophones use Basque to speak to their kids, and largely use Spanish to pass on with other household members. The factors that influence the use of Basque are: the figure of Bascophones in the topic ‘s societal webs, the comparative easiness with which the topic has to utilize Basque and Spanish, and the figure of Bascophones in the sociolinguistic country where the topic lives. ( Euskararen Jarraipena I 1995 cited in Cenoz 2005: page 43 ) .
So even though the Basque linguistic communication is turning in popularity, it is singular to see that Bascophones prefer to utilize Basque in their domestic country and speak Spanish in more formal scenes.
Basque in instruction
Bilingual instruction has been present in the Basque educational system since the nineteenth century. Some schools were bilingual or even trilingual ( i.e. Spanish, Basque and French ) . Spanish schools are either public or private. Public schools are normally to the full or partly funded by the Spanish authorities so parents do non hold to pay a batch of money for their kids go toing school, private schools are non financed by the authorities, which means that parents have to pay more money if they want their kids to analyze at that place.
During the 1960s a figure of private Basque schools ( ikastolas ) were founded. The ‘ikastolak ‘ schools are created as a publicity tool for the use of Basque in instruction, and even though in the 1960 it was illegal to utilize Basque in instruction, the figure of pupils increased over the old ages. Today most of the ‘ikastolak ‘ are portion of the ‘Ikastolen Elkartea ‘ , which is a covering organic structure preoccupied with the publicity of different undertakings to better the quality of instruction ( in kindergarten, primary and secondary instruction ) . With the Law of Linguistic Normalization both Basque and Spanish became mandatory topics at school and three theoretical accounts of bilingual instruction were created. These theoretical accounts are based on the premise that bilingual instruction has of import advantages. For illustration, bilingual instruction can hold a positive consequence on cognitive development and communicating ability. Bialystok found that bilingual kids were superior to monolingual kids on steps of the cognitive control of lingual procedures. ( Bialystok 1978b cited in Baker, 2006: page 157 )
The three different bilingual theoretical accounts in the BAC are: Model A, B, and D. ( The ‘C ‘ does non be in Basque ) .
Model A: This theoretical account is intended for female parent lingua talkers of Spanish who want instructions in Spanish. All topics are in Spanish, except for Basque, which is taught four to five hours a hebdomad.
Model Bacillus: This theoretical account is intended for female parent lingua talkers of Spanish who want to be bilingual in Spanish and Basque. Both linguistic communications are used as linguistic communications of direction for 50 % of the school clip.
Model D: The theoretical account was intended as a care plan for the Basque, but many Spanish pupils are analyzing harmonizing to this theoretical account every bit good. Basque is the linguistic communication of direction and Spanish is taught as a topic for four to five hours a hebdomad. Model D schools can be seen as both entire submergence programmes for bulk linguistic communication ( Spanish ) pupils and first linguistic communication care programmes for native Basque talkers.
Parents can take the theoretical account they want for their kids and both theoretical accounts are available at public and private schools.
From 1983/1983 to 2004/2005 the sum of pre-university pupils enrolled in Model A has decreased from 415.456 ( 79.34 % ) to 81.603 ( 26.69 % ) , yet Model B has increased from 44.458 ( 8.49 % ) to 69.941 ( 22.88 % ) but Model D has increased the most: from 63.699 ( 12.17 % ) to 154.164 ( 92 % ) . The bulk of all the students ( 92 % ) are enrolled in Models B and D. ( Huguet et al 2008 ) In Table 2 we see the figure of pupils in the different theoretical accounts in the BAC in the twelvemonth 2001-2002. At every degree, either kindergarten, primary school or at mandatory secondary school the highest sum of pupils is analyzing harmonizing to theoretical account D, where Basque is the linguistic communication of direction and Spanish is a topic. Model B is the smuggler up, where both linguistic communications are linguistic communications of direction, and the lowest sum of pupils study in Model A, where Spanish is the linguistic communication of direction and Basque is taught as a topic. This shows the tendency that a batch of pupils choose to analyze Basque and that the linguistic communication its popularity is turning. ( p.t.o. for tabular array )
Table Number of pupils in Models A, B, and D in the BAC ( 2001-2002 )
Kindergarten and primary school
( 3- 12 year-old kids )
Compulsory secondary school
( 12-16 year-old kids )
The position of the Basque linguistic communication has increased during the last 50 old ages. The figure of pupils analyzing Basque has increased and this influences the figure of bilinguals in the BAC. But there still seems to be a spread between the cognition and the usage of Basque in day-to-day life. As mentioned before: Basque can be found in instruction and in the media, yet Spanish is still the prevalent linguistic communication. Bascophones normally tend to utilize their linguistic communication in the place state of affairs and non in more formal scenes. It is singular that more and more native Spanish talkers decide to analyze Basque ( in either Model B or D schools ) , yet Basque is still a domestic linguistic communication. Spanish is still the dominant linguistic communication in the BAC, the usage of Basque in day-to-day life is limited to countries that are dominated by Bascophones.
Possibly the linguistic communication attitude towards the Basque linguistic communication has an influence on the usage of Basque. Lasagabaster ( 2005 ) has done a research on this topic ; ‘Attitudes towards Basque, Spanish and English ‘ . He defined attitudes with the words of Skehan ( 1989 ) : attitudes are portion of the alleged affectional variables of linguistic communication acquisition, together with personality, motive, the scholar ‘s outlooks, societal cultural experience or anxiousness. Lasagabaster states that attitudes are a cardinal factor in sociolinguistics and linguistic communication acquisition. He used 1087 participants, all undergraduates in the age scope of 18-50 and all analyzing at university. The participants studied at one of the three campuses in which the university of the BAC is divided: Arba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa. Lasagabaster found that the grade in competency in Basque influenced the pupils ‘ attitudes towards Basque ; really competent pupils had a more positive attitude than those with small or good demand of the linguistic communication. The same counts for Spanish, if a pupils speaks really good Spanish, the attitude towards the linguistic communication will be more positive than the attitude of person whose Spanish is of a lower degree.
He besides found that pupils populating in a dominant Basque-speaking country ( such as little towns ) are more favorable towards the Basque linguistic communication than those who live in dominant Spanish-speaking countries ( such as large metropoliss ) .This can be explained by the migration from Spanish workers to the BAC on the labour market. The younger coevals in the BAC tends to utilize Spanish alternatively of Basque. This can be explained by the fact that bulk languages normally seem to be ‘cooler ‘ than the minority languages to the adolescents, therefore they prefer to talk Spanish.
Schools should seek to step in in the attitude towards Basque. They should seek to make linguistic communication consciousness classs to alter the attitudes towards the minority linguistic communication. Teachers could make this by demoing the pupils how ‘rich ‘ the universe becomes with so many different linguistic communications. A positive attitude towards Basque is increasing, but more should be done to alter the position of Basque as ‘minority linguistic communication ‘ in its ain district. The authorities should seek to alter the linguistic communication attitude towards Basque. The heritage of Franco ( the usage of domestic Basque ) should be disinherited. The Bascophones should experience that they can besides utilize their ain linguistic communication outside their places and utilize it at work or on the street. But hence more people should larn Basque, because otherwise merely a little sum of co-workers would understand the Bascophones. By implementing more Basque on educational and media level the use of Basque will turn. More people will be forced to talk or larn Basque and the attitude towards the linguistic communication will increase positively even more. It will non merely be dominant in the smaller small towns, but besides in the bigger metropoliss. As a consequence the linguistic communication will be everyplace and the native Spanish talkers who surveies Basque will larn the linguistic communication with more easiness. The lone hazard of so many non-native Basque talkers is that they will act upon the linguistic communication and add a Spanish influence to the grammar or lexical degree.
Unfortunately, attitudes are hard to alter. The attitude towards Basque has been negative under the leading of Franco ( which lasted for about 40 old ages ) and to altering this attitude instantly is impossible. It takes little babe stairss, but those baby stairss are heading the right manner.
In the illustration of Spain we can see that there is a political influence on linguistic communication instruction and attitude. During Franco ‘s government the usage of minority linguistic communications in populace was forbidden, this influenced the attitudes towards the minority languages. Nowadays Basque is still non used frequently in formal scenes, Bascophones tend to utilize Basque for domestic usage and Spanish in formal scenes. Most of the media in the BAC are in Spanish and non in Basque. It seems that Franco ‘s government still has an impact on the usage of the Basque linguistic communication in formal scenes.
But to shut of with a positive note: bilingualism in the Basque state has come a long manner. Basque used to be out and nowadays the attitude towards the linguistic communication is turning positively. More and more pupils are go toing theoretical account D schools, schools where the linguistic communication of direction is Basque and Spanish is taught as a topic. Although the state of affairs of Basque is bettering, there are still few people who speak the linguistic communication, but thanks to the addition of pupils the figure of bilinguals in the BAC besides increases. Hopefully this will forestall Basque going a dead linguistic communication and stay a graphic linguistic communication.