Degree programmes, which are provided by both university-type and non-university higher instruction establishments, include first-cycle ( Bachelor ‘s grade ) programmes, second-cycle ( Master ‘s grade ) programmes and/or long-cycle ( Master ‘s grade ) programmes. First-cycle programmes aim to supply cognition and accomplishments in a specific country of survey, fixing pupils for work in a specific profession. Alumnuss of first-cycle programmes have entree to second-cycle programmes. Second-cycle and long-cycle programmes aim to supply specializer cognition in a specific country of survey, fixing pupils for originative work in a specific profession.
General demands for admittance to degree programmes, which are provided by higher instruction establishments, are the same for both university-type and non-university higher instruction establishments. Access to first-cycle programmes, taking to a Bachelor ‘s grade and long-cycle programmes, is unfastened to holders of an upper secondary school go forthing certification ( adulthood certification ) .
After the debut of a new upper secondary-school go forthing scrutiny ( Matura scrutiny ) in 2005, admittance to first-cycle and long-cycle grade programmes must be based on the consequences of this scrutiny. Therefore, higher instruction establishments may non form entryway scrutinies in the topics taken by pupil appliers at the adulthood scrutiny.
However, each higher instruction establishments may stipulate which consequences of the Matura scrutiny provide the footing for admittance to first-cycle and long-cycle programmes. Extra entryway scrutinies may be conducted by higher instruction establishments, upon the consent of the curate responsible for higher instruction, but merely when it is necessary to measure cognition or accomplishments which are non assessed by the Matura scrutiny or when an applier holds an upper secondary school go forthing certification obtained abroad.
The continuance of degree programmes in both university-type and non-university higher instruction establishments is as follows:
aˆ? first-cycle programmes ( Bachelor ‘s grade ) : 3 to 4 old ages when taking to licentiate rubric or 3.5 to 4 old ages when taking to engineer rubric, depending on the field of survey ;
aˆ? second-cycle programmes ( Master ‘s grade ) : 1.5 to 2 old ages, depending on the field of survey ;
aˆ? long-cycle programmes ( Master ‘s grade ) : 4.5 to 6 old ages, depending on the field of survey.
The completion of both second-cycle and long-cycle programmes provides entree to third-cycle ( doctorial ) programmes.
Doctoral ( third-cycle ) programmes, which are offered by university-type higher instruction establishments and research establishments, purpose to supply advanced cognition in a specific country or subject of scientific discipline, fixing pupils for independent research and originative activity and for the award of the academic grade of physician. Holders of the academic grade of physician may go on their research calling to obtain foremost the academic grade of physician habilitowany and later the academic rubric of professor. Apart from the general statute law listed in the get downing the Regulation by the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 19 December 2006 on doctorial programmes provided by organisational units of higher instruction establishments is related in peculiar to the organisation of doctorial programmes.
Doctoral programmes may be provided either by higher instruction establishments or by units of research establishments other than higher instruction establishments ( Polish Academy of Sciences and research and development establishments ) which are authorised to present the academic grade of physician habilitowany. As in the instance of higher instruction establishments, mandates to present the academic grade of physician habilitowany are granted by the State Commission for Academic Degrees on the footing of the quality of research and the figure of staff ( 12 ) employed keeping the academic rubric of professor or the academic grade of physician habilitowany.
Doctoral programmes in both higher instruction establishments and research establishments other than higher instruction establishments last between 3 and 4 old ages, the prevailing theoretical account being a four-year programme. The exact continuance of a doctorial programme is determined in ordinances set uping such a programme in a given unit of a higher instruction establishment or other research establishment.
Entree to doctorial programmes, which are provided by university-type higher instruction establishments and research establishments other than higher instruction establishments, is unfastened to appliers who hold a Master ‘s grade ( magister or an tantamount grade ) and fulfill admittance conditions laid down by a given establishment. Detailed admittance conditions are defined by the board of the organisational unit authorised to supply doctorial programmes in a given establishment, and must be published non later than by 31 May of the twelvemonth predating the academic twelvemonth to which they refer.
Number of pupils
At the beginning of 2008/2009 academic twelvemonth there were 456 universities in Poland ( 131 populace and 325 non-public universities ) . Simultaneously, at the public universities studied around 2/3 of all pupils ( 1,27 million )[ 1 ].
In conformity with Central Statistical Office categorization, the bulk of pupils ( about 30 % ) survey at universities, with the staying remainder at proficient colleges, medical schools etc. The mean figure of pupils at public universities and non-public universities sums severally to 9,7 1000 and around 2 1000.
The highest mean figure of pupils is at universities – around 29,2 thousand, 2nd topographic point belongs to proficient college ( around 13,4 1000 ) and so the agribusiness college ( 11 1000 ) . Small non-public colleges are a bulk in Polish higher instruction construction.
Despite the fact that since early 1990s Polish higher instruction has been developing consistently, it is characterized by a hapless internationalisation index in comparing to the EU states. The of import activities refering internationalisation procedure dressed ore chiefly in universities, which participate in EU plans, conclude the international understandings with foreign universities, employ foreign academic lectors ( chiefly from neighbouring states ) .
An of import index mensurating the degree of internationalisation of higher instruction is the figure of foreign pupils ( remaining in Poland for the whole surveies ) in the entire figure of pupils at Polish universities. In Poland this index amounts to 0,5 % and at the same clip this is the worst consequence among the 27 OECD states. Harmonizing to OECD specializer, the ground consists in the hapless and unattractive didactic offer of Polish universities.[ 2 ]Among the foreign pupils at Polish universities the bulk are Ukrainian ( 15 % ) , Belarusian ( 10 % ) , Norse ( 6 % ) and US ( 5 % ) .[ 3 ]
The ratio between Numberss of Polish pupils analyzing abroad and Polish pupils in Poland sums to 1,5 % – this is still below the mean ratio for EU states.
Polish establishments of higher instruction are engaged in international pupil exchange programmes like SOCRATES/Erasmus, every bit good as in bilateral understandings and single exchange programmes pursued by peculiar schools. The degree of Polish pupils traveling abroad to analyze is turning quickly since the Socrates-Erasmus plan debut. The programme gives the Polish pupils an chance to analyze in spouse universities in the European states, and at the same clip, hosting their pupils in order to finish the survey programme which can last from 3 month to one academic twelvemonth. Students can take part in intensive classs ( didactic talks prepared and lead by international group of lectors for international group of pupils ) . For the clip being, over 250 of Polish universities take portion in Erasmus programme ( they have an Erasmus Charter given by European Commission ) . In the academic twelvemonth 2007/08, 12 854 Polish pupils studied abroad within Erasmus programme – this is the three-base hit of the figure of foreign pupils coming to Poland ( 4 446 ) . The figure of Polish higher instruction establishments being a portion of Erasmus University Charter is about 200, but still merely the 1 % of pupil population is traveling survey abroad. The most popular state among Polish pupils were: Germany ( 40 % of the entire figure of Polish pupils analyzing abroad ) , Great Britain ( 17,7 % ) , France ( 8,9 % ) and US ( 7,5 % ) .[ 4 ]
Academic acknowledgment of instruction in Poland
The academic acknowledgment means the acknowledgment of a foreign making to enable farther surveies. The process consists in set uping whether the applier is able to go on surveies in the chosen way and at the chosen degree.
Seeking for academic acknowledgment of the certificates of old surveies is indispensable in the undermentioned instances:
keeping a grade or sheepskin of the native state and seeking an admittance to a following phase of surveies abroad ;
seeking an admittance for farther surveies in native state after completing the old phase of surveies in a foreign state ;
traveling from one foreign state to a different one in order to go on surveies in the farther phase of surveies ;
returning to homeland higher instruction establishment after holding finished a phase of surveies abroad.
The organic structure responsible for academic acknowledgment in Poland is the Bureau for Academic Recognition and International Exchange, province establishment subordinated to the Minister of National Education. Acting as the Polish ENIC Centre the Bureau cooperates closely with the ENIC/NARIC Network every bit good as provides information on higher instruction establishments and sheepskin. The processs and establishments involved in the foreign sheepskin acknowledgment differ harmonizing to higher instruction sheepskin and school certifications.
On the footing of the Ordinance of the Minister of National Education on the Rules and Procedure for Nostrification of Certificates Obtained Abroad ( October 15, 1997 ) all foreign school certifications have to be foremost lawfully recognised by the issuing state and subsequently by the local educational authorization in Poland.
The foreign certificates supplying the entree to the foreign higher instruction are recognised in Poland every bit good ( likewise to other school certifications ) , but they must incorporate a clause that confirms holder ‘s entree to the higher instruction establishments in the place state. Otherwise the governments of the establishment that has issued the certification might give a separate note corroborating this fact.
Equally far as the acknowledgment of foreign higher instruction sheepskin is concerned relevant commissariats of the Regulation of the Minister of National Education on the Rules and Procedure for Nostrification of Diplomas and Professional Titles Obtained Abroad ( December 10, 1991 ) province that the holders of such sheepskins must use either to the council of module or to another organisational unit of a Polish higher instruction establishment. However the chosen higher instruction establishment has to be authorised to supply degree programmes and present the academic grade of physician.