Climate alterations can impact both human life and the environment. With climate alteration comes lifting of sea degrees, runing ice screens and dissolving permafrost and changed frequence of utmost conditions events, non to advert changed phenology, some of which affects nutrient harvests ( Health and Environment Effects, 2009 ) . Albedo has been seen as a important part to alterations in our universe climates ( Otterman 1977 ) . The importance of supervising the land surface reflective power for understanding clime tendencies is comprehended by the late developed multidecadal orbiter informations that provide chance to carry on survey at regional and planetary graduated table ( Loew and Govaerts 2010 ) . This is where the time-series analyses plays their parts in recognizing the form and alterations that occur over the survey country.
Albedo is the ratio of the reflected sun irradiation from land surface. It is merely constitute and controls the sum of solar energy of the Earth. Therefore, the surface reflective power is really much depending on temporal facets such as the angular place of the Sun every bit good as the belongingss of flora surface ( Hamwey 2007 ) . ( Hamwey 2007 ) preliminary identified that active elaboration of land surface reflective power may stand for a possible scheme for clime alteration extenuation that can congratulate attempts to cut down the GHG emanations.
Albedo plays its function in many climatic status effects, one most noteworthy is Urban Heat Island ( UHI ) . The formation of UHI chiefly due to many factors such as meteoric factors and metropolis parametric quantities ( Shahmohamadi, Che-Ani et Al. 2009 ) . One of the metropolis parametric quantities is the albedo stuff. It is besides identified that one of most important belongingss in lifting the metropolis temperature is low reflective power ( Shahmohamadi, Che-Ani et Al. 2009 ) . UHI phenomenon is said to be closely related to the loss of greenery country for the intent of development ( Jusuf and Hien 2009 ) . Hence, reflective power, land surface alteration and UHI are seen to be interconnected in such a manner that varies in footings of its strength correlatively.
Looking at farther effects of UHI and surface temperature, current surveies sing urban alteration and temperature induced electrical storm shows some important findings and reveals further potency for geographic expedition ( Daranpob, Chang et Al. 2009 ; Niyogi, Pyle et Al. 2010 ; Xie, Chang et Al. 2010 ) . These surveies utilised the Mesoscale Model version 5 ( MM5 ) for the UHI and thunderstorm simulation to seek for the urban alteration influenced in the form of air convection that modified the electrical storm character over an urban locality. The bounds arose in seeing this theoretical account to be used at Malaysia urban form, microscale degree and possibly certain need for alteration to accommodate the microscale demands. The survey of land surface reflective power and its inter-dependences towards planetary clime status have been conducted by several research workers i.e ( Zhou, Dickinson et Al. 2003 ) , ( Akbari, Menon et Al. 2009 ) , ( Govaerts and Lattanzio 2008 ) and ( Ollinger, Richardson et Al. 2008 ) .
Land surface reflective power plays a important function in finding and commanding the energy budget. Researchers has been analyzing it belongingss through its dependence on solar zenith angle as to formalize the beginning of image dataset ( Liu, Schaaf et Al. 2009 ) , the correlativity of radiative forcing and landuse ( Nair, Ray et Al. 2007 ; Kvalevag 2009 ; Kvalevag, Myhre et Al. 2010 ) and betterment or downscaling its informations spacial declaration to enable higher truth and more inside informations consequences for survey affecting microclimate status ( Nasipuri, Majumdar et Al. 2006 ; Liu, Yamaguchi et Al. 2007 ; Rocchini 2007 ; Liu, Hu et Al. 2009 ; M ttus and Rautiainen 2009 ) . The most recent downscaling survey involves map derived by MODIS image specifically to look into the hoar happening utilizing booster arrested development trees and suggested that there is a possible applications of physiographic patterning to downscale ecological procedures in complex terrains ( Pouteau, Rambal et Al. 2011 ) . Having known that, it is at impulse for Malaysia to cognize the alterations and the form of reflective power in this state in order to back up and supply the demands of other clime alteration researches.
Remote detection and GIS engineering surely give advantages to let bigger coverage informations retrieval and immense informations excavation intents. There are several surveies in relation to albedo that have utilized these engineerings. Satellite derived albedo such as Meteosat was used in several researches to seek for disagreements through documenting the time-series informations and analysis ( Loew and Govaerts 2010 ) , designation of spacial and temporal distribution of aerosol ( Pinty, Roveda et Al. 2000 ) and drought events ( Govaerts and Lattanzio 2008 ) . Pinty, Roveda et Al. ( 2000 ) used 10 old ages of Meteosat datasets and has underlined the chance to document the alterations and later enable one to supervise land surface kineticss. Landsat image was besides being used for supervising Earth reflective powers and survey of flora indices relationship with surface raggedness ( Kiang and Ungar 1977 ; Yunjun, Qiming et Al. 2008 ) . While MODIS have been through legion confirmation and proof surveies ( Lucht, Schaaf et Al. 2000 ; Stroeve, Box et Al. 2005 ; Liu, Schaaf et Al. 2009 ) , AVHRR and GOES was used to recover ruddy spectral reflective power and bidirectional coefficient of reflection ( d’Entremont, Schaaf et Al. 1999 ) . A comprehensive datasets with feasible temporal declaration where the information is being observed in a sequence of clip enable a sphere of statistical analyses known as time-series analysis.
2.0 The Research Outline/Potential & A ; Problem Statements
Now that the LANDSAT and other NASA information archives are on unfastened entree, land screen alteration, mapped from the clip series NASA LANDSAT archive can be correlated with the time-series MODIS and ASTER albedo informations in order to measure claims that land-cover alteration ( most of it anthropogenetic ) brings changes/influences in the radiation balance. The methodological challenges include non merely ground-truthing the LANDSAT imagination ( there are other archives that can be used for cross mention ) but besides the rectification of terrain effects upon the natural reflective power informations.
Measuring alterations in satellite-derived surface albedo through clip provides a quantitative agency for tracking land surface alteration and measurement that alteration in footings that can be straight applied by planetary and regional C balance and ecosystem applications, peculiarly those which have to supervise energy transportation at the surface. Land-use alterations bring alteration non merely in the form of land screen and land usage, but besides terrain properties. For case, imperviable surface forms, drainage connectivity, interruptions of incline may alter and therefore farther affect heat and wet balance and the reflective power mosaic. Land usage alteration across the tellurian surfaces of the planet Earth is now so omnipresent that radiation balance feedback can be expected both across and outside the ( increasingly, year-by-year, less extended ) snow and ice-covered surfaces. The LiDAR coverage refers to a scope of different terrain types and land screens and so ample chance exists for proving the corrections by deployment of high declaration ( LiDAR-based ) DEMs: consequences of experiments across a scope of terrain types.
The result of such research will stand for a part of the mosaic of albedo alteration that must be assembled for appraisal of the net planetary alteration, and the entire form of radiation balance alteration due to land-use alteration.
3.0 Purposes and Aims
The purposes of this research is to look into and analyze the Albedo form alterations as a physical parametric quantity to anthropogenetic factors generate through remote feeling method and discovers the functional relation with regard to Malaysian UHI concentrating on the urban storm phenomenon. With that the aims are as the followers:
To examine and size up the reflective power form alterations and its relationship with the anthropogenetic factors and its effects upon urban surface temperature ;
To explicate a theoretical account and factorise reflective power of urban characteristics with regard to the betterment of earth resources orbiter system in albedo pattern acknowledgment ;
To refer and analyze the theoretical account on Malayan existent urban clime status ;
To bring forth and imitate time-series albedo pattern effects for UHI – Urban Storm Phenomenon ;
To predict/envisage local urban clime status utilizing the established theoretical account.
4.0 Scope of Research
10 old ages of MODIS land merchandise and albedo images from 2000 – 2010 will be used for major time-series analyses
Downscaling to Malayan Urban country ( klang valey – Putrajaya )
Landsat landuse archive and besides MODIS land informations merchandise to be the beginning of landuse map
Surface Temperature Map is obtained from MODIS/ASTER surface temperature – to congratulate Landsat archive informations
Modeling MM5 ~~ for analyzing the storm mechanism with surface temperature
Mesoscale ~~ Microclimate
Land truthing Albedo – albedometer
5.0 Draft Research Methodology/Framework
Data Pre-processing etc.
Designation of Gaps in Exising Data
Collection of bing informations
Albedo Time-series Maps
Surface Temperature Maps
Constructing Profiling ( microscale survey )
Storm/Thunderstorm Events location
Albedo Spatio Temporal Analyses
Albedo Time-series Analysiss
Constructing Profiling Heights ( microscale survey )
Wind Speed and Directions
Storm/Thunderstorm events Datas
( FRGS objective 1 and 2 )
Topographic point 5
Albedo Time-series Maps
1999-2010 in HDF format
Albedo 16-Day L3 Global 500m SIN MCD43A3
( MODIS Land Product )
Landuse/Landcover Map and Surface Temperature Map
Correlation Strength Analyses
Experiment and Analysiss
( FRGS objective 3 )
Formulate theoretical account – better spacial declaration
Correlation Strength Analyses
Albedo Time-series Maps
LULC Map and Surface Temperature Map
Urban Surface Temperature Map ( improves declaration – instance survey )
Plotted Coincide Local Storm/ Thunderstorm Events
UMM5-MM5 Model Simulation/ matching theoretical account
Meso – & gt ; Local graduated table alteration
Improved Generated Albedo Time-series
( improves declaration – instance survey )
Correlation strength analyses
Simulation of local Storm.Thunderstorm events utilizing established theoretical account at 5-10 old ages.
local graduated table
( If modified theoretical account completed the theoretical account can be utilised )
6.0 Signifficance of Study
Examine 10 old ages MODIS Albedo Product of Malaysia with regard to Landuse alterations and its urban surface temperature. The end product will be the Malaysia Albedo form alterations, and relationships with landuse alterations and surface temperature.
Albedo and surface temperature field measurings of urban characteristics to happen correlativity with other satellite image to better theoretical account for the usage of research at mesoscale degree ( betterment of spacial declaration ) . The consequences would likely be model/s of urban surface characteristics albedo and if there any correlativity so farther integrating with an improved orbiter image declaration. The model/s will be tested under real-time Malaysia ‘s urban status in order to formalize the formulated model/s.
With the validated model/s, now the Malayan urban time-series albedo form can be generated at better image declaration and simulation can be performed to find the albedo form effects. For this research a instance survey of UHI-urban storm phenomenon will be looked into.
Using these consequences, one will be able to foretell local urban surface temperature and the hazard of the deathly phenomenon such as urban storm. In Malaysia for case, there have been legion drought occurences in the yesteryear, one most important was the 1997/98 El Nino which impacted major state in Malaysia including Borneo threatened by extended wild forest fire due to protract dry conditions status.
On the other manus, with 10 old ages ocular feeling of distant feeling imagination of Earth can give you an indicant about the huge alterations in landuse either by farming, industrial or irrigation, and such alterations has yet been quantified? This consequence will give an extended spacial form of land usage alterations that can be utilize for farther investigation/research.
The extent to which any correlativity can be detected and explained will be the extent to which the treatment can take to either a recommendation for farther work or a recommendation for the stream-lining of clime monitoring activities. In footings of policy context, some involvement attached to the extent to which the reflective power alterations can be used for mapping drought alleviation countries and proving the existent on-ground status with the administrative boundaries used in catchment direction.