Effects Of Anthropogenic Activities In Lokhandwala Lake Environmental Sciences Essay

How the recent anthropogenetic activities like rinsing, bathing, spiritual rites and addition of invasions along the lake have affected the Lokhandwala Lake, its surrounding and its aquatic life.

Rationale:

Lokhandwala Lake is situated in Mumbai, India, the thick of lodging country. It is really old lake which has been existed since many old ages. This is a adult male – made lake formed sometime about 1980 as a consequence of the route taking to the electricity sub-station. The depression formed got filled with H2O and it became a fresh H2O lake. Environmentalists claim that 20 old ages ago seawater would roll up in the land where the lake stands today. However, when the BSES substation was built, the country was cut off from the sea. The land with its natural depression shortly filled with rainwater and is a lake today. The lake is besides surrounded by a thick growing of Rhizophora mangles. However, a recent theodolite solid waste dumping station has been made by the Brihan Mumbai Corporation ( BMC ) amidst the Rhizophora mangle country, therefore endangering the Rhizophora mangles, its biodiversity and besides the Lokhandwala Lake as the theodolite route passes along the lake. Members of Lokhandwala Complex Environment Action Group ( LCEAG ) are pressing occupants of Lokhandwala to follow stretches of Rhizophora mangles in the locality, along with Lokhandwala Lake, and organize citizen watchfulness commission to guarantee its protection and greening. In the past epoch the lake was pure and less contaminated but as the population started increasing in that country due to increase in lodging slums, there has been a changeless development of the lake and its resources. Activities like bathing, rinsing, spiritual rites etc. have resulted in the lake being eutrophicated and has about lost some species of fishes one time present. Activities like over fishing have besides lead to the diminution of these fish species.

Methodology:

In my primary research I will do a study of the lake to understand the beginnings fouling the lake and take the sample from the lake to happen the parametric quantities of H2O so as to demo the degrees of the pollutants in the lake and therefore the effects on the biotic environment. As portion of the secondary research I will do usage of resources like books, cyberspace and informations from any anterior surveies. From the available yesteryear informations I will so be able to happen a comparing between the degrees of pollution in the lake during the past old ages.

Introduction:

Lakes are big organic structures of standing H2O, either formed of course or man-made for agreeableness intents. Water degrees tend non to fluctuate to any great extent and gently postponing borders back up a broad assortment of vegetations and associated zoology. Besides it serves an of import aesthetic function and, within the context of designed parkland, landscapes are of import heritage assets. It is the fact that merely 3 % of universe ‘s H2O is fresh out of which 99 % of this is either frozen in glaciers and battalion ice or buried in aquifers.

The Lokhandwala Lake is spread over 8 estates and is rain fed, drying up wholly in April. The lake besides attracts aquatic birds and there are about 36 species of birds found around the lake. The lake attracts several migratory aquatic birds and birds of quarry. It is the lone sort of lake along the seashore of Mumbai from Colaba to Dahisar and has been saved with the active attempts of the Lokhandwala Complex Environmental Action Group. LCEAG had been formed in 2001 through the attempts of a few like minded people determined to salvage the alone natural beauty around Lokhandwala composite. The attempts started in 1999 with the economy of the Lokhandwala Lake which was so being covered with refuse by the Municipal Corporation.

Since so the Group has been involved with salvaging the lake and the Rhizophora mangles and forestalling dumping of dust and refuse.

The Rhizophora mangles and parts of the lake have been destroyed since five old ages by human activities. Besides the recent development of the theodolite solid waste dumping land has resulted in an addition in pollution of the dirt, Rhizophora mangles and the lake. Foul olfactory property, addition in disease – causation vectors and an unpleasant sight of the dumping land have urged the occupants of the Lokhandwala to organize commission called the Lokhandwala complex Environmental Action Group ( LCEAG ) and take action to continue the Rhizophora mangles and the lake. Even after repeated ailments by occupants of lokhandwala and environing countries to MHADA governments, Forest section, BMC and Collector ‘s office for non taking action against dust and refuse dumping in Lokhandwala Lake and Rhizophora mangles, people remaining nearby are truly displeased with them. To forestall farther harm, the occupants of the country had arranged security guards. Since the organisations working towards protection of the Rhizophora mangles did non hold adequate financess, the security for the country had to be deployed. Due to increase in dumping, the Forest section had put up green and ruddy boards calling the subdivision of Rhizophora mangles and the lake as ‘protected countries ‘ . But this was an eye-lotion because behind these boards dust and refuse dumping continued around the Rhizophora mangles. Merely if person takes attention of this 300 acre land, exuberant green spot of Rhizophora mangles and the lake will last. The greatest menace to the lake is that BMC had declared the site to plunge the Ganesh graven image and in twelvemonth 2008, 104 graven images were immersed. In the meantime, this secret plan is transit point to dump refuse collected from full territory. Mini compactors dump their refuse here and the larger one picks it up and transportations elsewhere. Around 300 metric metric tons of refuse is dumped by mini compactors per twenty-four hours. The negative ecological effects in lakes caused by the effects like disappearing of some endemic species ; and eutrophication of lakes with bluish green algal blooms, lift in chlorophyll pigment concentration, simplification of species aquatic macrophytes originally dominant in lakes by planktonic algae.

The dumping land has displaced several native bird species and these have been taken over by invasive species like the kites, crows and lesser egrets. The human activities at the lake have besides reduced the happening of migratory birds and several other native bird species.

Introdction:

Dissolved O can be defined as the most of import index of wellness of a H2O organic structure and besides its capacity to back up the species populating in the lake. If the needed ammount of DO is present in the lake so merely there will be balance in the aquatic ecosystem of workss and animate beings, therefore DO plays a critical function in keeping the aquatic system. Waste H2O incorporating organic pollutants depletes the dissolved O and may take to decease of marine beings.

Aim – To cipher the entire dissolved O of the Lokhandwala lake by winkler ‘s method and by DO detectors.

Requirements:

Chemicals:

0.025 N Sodium thiosulphate

Winkler ‘s A reagent

Winkler ‘s B reagent

Starch solution ( 1 % )

Concentrated Sulphuric acid

Glassware:

Conic flasks

Beakers

Measuring cylinders

DO bottles

Pipets

Burette

Burette base

Variables:

Dependent variables: Sum of O dissolved in H2O.

Independent variables:

Control variables:

Hypothesis:

The initial phase was to look into the degrees of dissolved O in the H2O organic structure so as to understand the aquatic life that can be supported by the lake. Since the lake is used for several domestic intents like bathing, disposal of industrial waste, hence my premise is that the degrees of DO will be less than the maximal degrees required to back up aquatic life. Besides since several organic wastes are disposed into the lakes, aerophilic debasement of these wastes will ensue in lessening in Dissolved Oxygen ( DO ) degrees.

Method:

Fill the DO bottles wholly with the sample avoiding any air bubbles.

Add 2ml of Winkler ‘s A reagent and 2ml of Winkler ‘s B reagent to the sample.

Replace the stopper of the DO bottle and blend the contents exhaustively

Allow the flocs to settle for a few proceedingss.

Remove the stopper and add concentrated sulfuric acid carefully to fade out the flocs. Mix good till the liberated I is uniformly dispersed.

Take 100 milliliter of the sample in a conelike flask and titrate against 0.025 N Na thiosulphate boulder clay pale xanthous colour appears.

Add a 2ml of amylum and go on titrating till the bluish colour alterations to colorless.

Data aggregation:

Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen during monsoon in the month of August:

Burette reading

2.7 mg/L

Dissolved Oxygen ( DO ) ( mg/L )

=

=5.4 mg/L

. ( to be put after the consequences )

Table: Showing the DO degrees of Lokhandwala Lake measured for 60 seconds with the aid of a DO detector after monsoons:

Time ( in secs )

DO ( mg/L )

Time ( in secs )

DO ( mg/L )

Tine ( in secs )

DO ( mg/L )

1

3.3

21

2.5

41

1.3

2

3.1

22

2.5

42

1.3

3

3.6

23

2.5

43

1

4

2.9

24

2.5

44

1.9

5

3

25

2.4

45

2.8

6

2.9

26

2.2

46

2.4

7

2.8

27

2.3

47

2.3

8

2.8

28

2.3

48

2.1

9

2.8

29

2.3

49

2.2

10

3

30

2.3

50

2.1

11

2.9

31

2.2

51

2.5

12

2.3

32

2.4

52

2.3

13

2.2

33

2.2

53

2.2

14

3.1

34

2.1

54

2.1

15

3.1

35

2.1

55

2.1

16

2.5

36

2.7

56

1.9

17

2.3

37

2.2

57

2

18

2.5

38

2.9

58

1.9

19

2.5

39

2.7

59

1.9

20

2.7

40

2.6

60

2

Figure: Graph demoing the DO degrees ( in milligram / L ) of Lokhandwala Lake estimated utilizing DO detector.

Discussion:

The minimal degrees of Dissolved Oxygen required to back up in any aquatic ecosystem is 3-4 mg/L. Dissolved Oxygen degrees falling beyond the minimal degrees is a cause of concern because as the degrees deplete, the capacity of the H2O organic structure to back up life besides decreases and as a consequence the H2O organic structure wholly loses its critical biodiversity. Organic wastes added to H2O organic structures to play a function in consuming the Dissolved Oxygen degrees. Since these wastes are broken down in the procedure of aerophilic debasement, the big population of micro-organisms utilizes the dissolved O to transport out the procedure. If the rate of use of dissolved O is higher than the regeneration capacity, the H2O organic structures bit by bit lose their dissolved O content.

Since the Lokhandwala lake, experiences several human activities, which add up to the organic load the degrees of Dissolved Oxygen are known to consume. The Dissolved Oxygen was tested during two stages i.e. one during the monsoon and other was post monsoons. From the analysis it can be seen that the degree of dissolved O during monsoon was 5.4 mg/L and the station monsoon degrees were 2.8 mg/L. The degrees of dissolved oxygrn station monsoon are seen to be depleted from the degrees during monsoon therefore proposing that debasement of organic wastes has occurred.

The degrees of dissolved O are higher during the monsoons and this may be due to dilution of the lake H2O by the rains. However it can be noted that organic wastes are continuously being added to the lake ensuing in the reduced degrees of dissolved O. This analysis therefore proves my hypothesis that aerophilic debasement is really high and therefore the reduced degrees of dissolved O in the station monsoon sample.

The first reading was collected during the monsoons and estimated chemically by Winkler ‘s Method. This reading does non back up my hypothesis that the degrees of DO will be lesser than the lower limit required back uping life as the minimal DO required to back up life in any aquatic ecosystem is 3 milligram / L. Since the aquatic beings require minimal Dissolved Oxygen of 3 mg/L and hence during the monsoon there is a good sum of Dissolved Oxygen preent in the H2O to back up aquatic life.

However, the DO degrees estimated by utilizing DO sensor station monsoons is much less than the DO estimated during monsoons. The DO degrees recorded were 2.58 milligrams / L.The sum of dissolved O station monsoon will non back up aquatic life as 2.58 mg/L is really less and the minimal degree should be 3 mg/L.

Introduction: pH is defined as a step of the sourness of alkalinity of H2O, expressed in footings of its concentration of H ions. The pH graduated table ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered to be impersonal. Substances with pH of less that 7 are acidic and substances with pH greater than 7 are basic. The pH of H2O resolves the solubility ( sum that can be dissolved in the H2O ) and biological handiness ( amount that can be utilized by aquatic life ) of chemical components such as foods P, N, and C ) and heavy metals ( lead, Cu, Cd, etc. )

Purpose: To look into the pH ( sourness and alkalinity ) of H2O

Variables:

Dependent variable: pH of H2O.

Independent variable: Temperature

Controlled variable:

Method:

The first reading ( i.e. during monsoons ) was taken utilizing a pH metre.

The 2nd reading ( i.e station monsoons ) was estimated utilizing a pH detector

Hypothesis:

The initial phase was to look into the degrees of pH in the H2O organic structure so as to understand whether the lake is more acidic or alkaline. Since the pollution degrees in the metropolis is high and twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours its increasing, besides many human actvities are impacting the lake, hence my premise is that the pH degree be low.

Data aggregation:

During monsoons: the pH degrees measured were 6.39

After monsoons: After taking 3 readings I got the exact reading 7.45 mg/L

Table: Showing the pH degrees of Lokhandwala Lake for 60 seconds, measured by a pH detector

Time ( in secs )

pH

Time ( in secs )

pH

Time ( in secs )

pH

2

7.29

22

7.21

42

7.21

4

7.28

24

7.21

44

7.21

6

7.25

26

7.20

46

7.20

8

7.28

28

7.21

48

7.22

10

7.22

30

7.22

50

7.21

12

7.21

32

7.21

52

7.21

14

7.20

34

7.21

54

7.20

16

7.21

36

7.21

56

7.22

18

7.22

38

7.20

58

7.21

20

7.20

40

7.21

60

7.21

Figure: Graph demoing the pH degrees of Lokhanwala lake estimated during station monsoons utilizing a pH detector.

Discussion:

The minimal degrees of pH require to back up Lokhandwala lake is 6.5-8.5. pH degrees falling beyond the minimal degrees is a cause of concern because as the pH will be lesses the H2O will be extremely acidic due to which many aquatic beings will be killed, due to increase in the pollution degrees many toxicant pollutants mix with rainwater which leads to acid rain and affets the lake to a great extent. There was large issue of a great memorial Taj mahal, the marble of the memorial was affected due to acid rain. Besides if the pH is higher so besides it creates a job. Pollution can take to higher algal and works growing, due to thid pH degrees may increase. Although these little alterations in pH are non likely to hold a direct impact on aquatic life, they greatly influence the handiness and solubility of all chemical signifiers in the lake and may worsen alimentary jobs. For illustration, a alteration in pH may increase the solubility of P, doing it more available for works growing and ensuing in a greater long-run demand for dissolved O. I have carried out two experiments, one during monsoons and other after monsoons. The value which I got during monsoons is 6.39 which were less than required. Since the pH was less, the H2O in the lake is acidic which may impact aquatic being nowadays in the H2O. Due to increase in pollution in the metropolis chemicals are assorted with rain H2O which leads to worsen in pH of the lake. Activities like bathing, rinsing etc besides leads to diminish in pH of the lake. But during the monsoons the chemicals which are present in the ambiance besides contribute to diminish the pH of H2O. After monsoons I got the pH as 7.45 which are norrmal harmonizing to the criterion allowable values. Hence we can state to keep the value of pH pollution should be reduced, rigorous actions should be taken for other anthropogenetic activities which are done near lake.

Entire dissolved solids ( TDS )

Introduction: Entire dissolved solids ( TDS ) clinch inorganic salts and little sums of organic affair that are dissolved in H2O of the lake. The premier elements are normally the Ca, Mg, Na, K, carbonate, hydrogen carbonate, chloride, sulfate and, peculiarly in groundwater, nitrate. The consequence of presence of dissolved solids in H2O is that it changes the gustatory sensation of the H2O. The palatableness of imbibing H2O has been rated, by panels of taste testers, harmonizing to TDS degree as follows: excellent, less than 300 mg/L ; good, between 300 and 600 mg/L ; just, between 600 and 900 mg/L ; hapless, between 900 and 1200 mg/L ; and unacceptable, greater than 1200 mg/L. ( 37 ) Water with highly low TDS concentrations may besides be unacceptable because of its level, bland gustatory sensation.

Purpose: To cipher the weight of solid atoms in lake H2O.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Entire dissolved solids

Indepedent variable: Crucible

Control variable: Measure of H2O taken ( in milliliter ) , Area of lake, season, and clip of the twenty-four hours

Hypothesis:

The initial was to look into the solid atoms present in the H2O so as to understand how much solid is present in the H2O. My asumption is that the solids which are present in the H2O may be risky as there are many human activities which are impacting the lakes.

Method:

Take the crucible and step the dry weight of it.

Take 25ml of lake H2O in the pre – wieghed crucible and heat the H2O till the H2O wholly evaporates.

After vaporization maintain the crucuble in the dessicator for one twenty-four hours till it wholly cools down.

After it cools down, step the weight of that crucible and subtract that weight from initial weight of crucible.

Data Collection:

Initial weight of the crucible ( A ) = 5.3 Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids ( B ) = 5.4 Gms

Final weight = B – Angstrom

Final weight= 5.4 – 5.3 = 0.1gms

Discussion:

The minimal degree of TDS allowed by allowable criterions is 2100 gram. If the TDS degrees are exceeded so the major job will originate for the people as there will be batch of harmful chemicals present in the H2O due to which H2O will be extremely impure. TDS is the besides one of the chief constituent to cipher the pureness if H2O. Through this method we can reason that the H2O can be drunk or non.

In the Lokhandwala lake there are many anthropogrnic activities are held due to which many unwanted substance are assorted with H2O and the needed minerals are washed off which leads to low sum of TDS. But the sum of TDS should n’t be excessively low because if the TDS is really low so the H2O will non be suited because of its level, bland gustatory sensation.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand ( BOD ) :

Introduction: Biochemical O demand or BOD is a chemical process for finding the uptake rate of dissolved O by the biological beings in a organic structure of H2O. It is non a precise quantitative trial, although it is widely used as an indicant of the quality of H2O. Beginnings like industrial wastes, antibiotics in pharmaceutical or medical wastes, sanitizers in nutrient processing or commercial cleansing installations, chlorination disinfection used following conventional sewage intervention.

Purpose: To deduct the sum of dissolved O nowadays in the lake on twenty-four hours 5 and on twenty-four hours 1.

Requirements: DO bottles, beakers, DO detector.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Sum of dissolved O nowadays in the H2O

Independent variable: Temperature

Controlled variable: Light

Hypothesis:

The initial phase was to look into the sum of DO show in the H2O on first and the sum of DO show in the H2O on 5th twenty-four hours. Since the DO bottles were kept in the dark topographic point my premise is that the DO degrees will cut down as there is no transition of air and the bottles are kept in the dark topographic point due to which there will be no sunshine provided to the H2O sample.

Procedure:

Take the sample in beaker and step the DO through DO detectors.

Keep the sample of H2O in DO bottles and maintain it in the dark topographic point for five yearss.

After five yearss measure the sum of DO of the H2O through DO detectors.

Subtract the DO of 5th twenty-four hours from the DO of first twenty-four hours.

Data aggregation:

DO degrees on first twenty-four hours: 12.8 mg/L ( A1 )

DO degrees on 5th twenty-four hours: ( A2 )

Human body: A2 – A1

=

Discussion:

Appraisal of hardness from the Lokhandwala Lake

Introduction:

Hardness in H2O is that characteristic which prevents the formation of soapsuds or froth when such difficult H2O is assorted with soap. It is caused by the presence of certain ions of Ca and Mg dissolved in H2O which form a trash when reacted with any detergent or soap. Difficult Waterss are unwanted to utilize because they lead to greater soap ingestion, sealing of boilers, doing eroding and encrustations ( deposition of all right stuff of minerals on the surface ) of pipes n industries and transporting drinkable H2O.

Hardness is calculated in footings of Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 ) and is expressed in ppm ( parts per million ) or mg/L. In general under normal scope of pH, H2O with hardness of upto 75 ppm is considered soft and that above 75 ppm, traversing 200 ppm is considered hard. Belowground H2O is considered by and large harder than surface H2O as they have more chance to come in contact with minerals. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, necessitating intervention. For the H2O to be used in boilers and for efficient fabric rinsing in washs, the H2O must be soft i.e. around 75 ppm. The prescribed hardness bound for public supply ranges from 75 – 115 ppm.

Purpose: To gauge the hardness of the given H2O sample by EDTA – Eriochrome Black T method.

Requirements:

Chemicals:

0.01M EDTA ( Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid )

Alkaline buffer ( pH 10 )

Eriochrome Black T index

Water samples

Glassware:

Burette – 1

Burette stand – 1

Pipette – 10 ml – 2

Conic flask – 250 ml – 2

Beaker – 100 ml – 2

Variables:

Dependent variable: Hardness of H2O.

Independent variable: Temperature.

Controlled variable: Measure of H2O taken and country of lake.

Hypothesis: .

My initial phase was to look into the hardness of H2O. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, necessitating intervention. But since H2O is been dicharged from Reliance power house which is near to the lake which leads to increase in the hardness of H2O. Hence my premise is that the hardness will be higher.

Procedure:

Take 10 milliliters of H2O sample in a conelike flask.

Add 1 milliliter of alkaline ( pH 10 ) buffer.

Add a pinch of Eriochrome Back T index to the sample.

Titrate the solution with 0.01M EDTA solution till the colour alterations from vino red to blue.

Record the burrete readings and cipher the hardness in milligram / L.

Data aggregation:

Hardness of H2O ( ppm )

850 ppm

Discussion:

The minimal degrees of hardness allowed by standard permissible is 800 ppm. But the degree of hardness which I got is 850 ppm and its really high which needs to be treated before providing to the populace for different intents like imbibing, bathing, rinsing etc. Increase in the hardness of H2O will take to wastage as the H2O nowadays in the H2O will non be utile for imbibing and besides for rinsing intents as the H2O will non organize lather. Excess of chemicals like Ca and Mg consequences in an addition in the hardness of H2O.

Lokhandwala lake being a popular lake in Mumbai, submergence of Ganesh is held in this lake. Statues of Ganesh contains Ca and there are 1000s of statues which are immersed in the lake due to which the degrees of Ca exceed in the lake which eventually lead to an addition in the hardness of H2O. Many steps are taken LCEAG to protect the lake from acquiring polluted.

Table demoing minimal allowable degrees for the Mumbai lakes:

Sr.no

DO ( mg/l )

Human body

( mg/l )

( 5 yearss )

pH

1

Drinking H2O Beginning without conventional intervention but after disinfection

6

2

6.5- 8.5

2

Outdoor bathing ( Organised )

5

3

6.5 -8.5

3

Drinking H2O beginning after conventional intervention and disinfection

4

3

6 – 9

4

Propagation of Wild life and Fisheries

4

___

6.5-8.5

5

Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal

___

___

8-8.5

`

Standards for discharge H2O:

Sr.No

Parameters

Info inland Surface H2O

On land for irrigation

Into Marine for irrigation

Into public cloacas

1.

Colour/Odour

_____

_____

_____

_____

2.

Suspended solids, mg/L

100

200

100 ( For procedure waste )

600

3.

Particle size supended solids

Shall base on balls 850 micrometer IS screen

_____

Floatable Solids Max 3 millimeter Settleable Solids Max 850 micrometers

_____

4.

Dissolved solid ( Inorganic ) , mg/L, soap

2100

2100

_____

2100

5.

Ph value

5.5-9

5.5-9

5.5-9

5.5-9