A Study Of Egyptian Water Resources Environmental Sciences Essay

First of all the Nile River is one of the most of import rivers all over the universe as it is the longest river in the universe. It is 6,671 kilometer but non the largest 1 in the H2O measure. It is of import to emphasize that the Nile River is the longest but besides the losingss along the river are really immense. So today, Egypt and the Nilotic states try to diminish these losingss by doing undertakings on the Nile like what will be presented in this research, which is the Jonglei canal, in add-on to edifice dikes for different intents. But it is of import to advert that, in order to make any undertaking on the Nile there must be an understanding from all the states of the Nile River.

Egypt is the topographic point where the Nile River ends and the Nile represents the chief beginning of H2O. Based on 1959 understanding, Egypt portion is 55.5 BCM. With the huge addition in population and the escalating demand for H2O due to the alteration in the life manner, the one-year quota per individual lessening and autumn beyond the H2O poorness bound which is defined by the World Bank by 1000 CM per capita per twelvemonth.

Based on these fortunes, Egypt ‘s National Water Resources Plan for the Year 2017 has chiefly three pillars ( 1 ) Developing extra H2O resources, ( 2 ) doing better usage of the available H2O resources and ( 3 ) protection of public wellness and environment. One of the chief measurings of the first pillar is Completion of Jonglei Canal. The Jonglei Canal Phase I project is meant to deviate portion of the natural flows around the Sudd swamps and therefore to increase the downstream flows by about 4 BCM per twelvemonth which is to be shared every bit between Sudan and Egypt. Construction of the Jonglei Canal was started in 1978 but was suspended in 1983 because of the political state of affairs in Sudan. The plants might be resumed in future although the changed positions on possible ecological impacts of the canal may organize an obstructor.


The Nile River is a complex of several feeders that flow from the South to the North and articulation at assorted points and it passes through EL Sudan where the Blue and White Niles meet in the Khartoum and so is stored behind the High Aswan Dam in the lake Nasser and the H2O is divided between Egypt and Sudan as Egypt take 55.5 BCM and Sudan take 18.5 BCM.

The Blue Nile is fed chiefly by the Dinder and Rahad rivers, which flow from the Ethiopian Highlandss. The White Nile originates in East Africa and is fed by Lake Victoria, in add-on to the mountain feeders of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi. The White Nile besides receives H2O at the meeting of the Sobat and Bahr al Ghazal in Southern Sudan at El-Sudd. It is in this part that much of the H2O from the White Nile is lost to transpiration and vaporization due to the swamplands of the country and their slow currents. The entire country of the swamplands of El-Sudd is about 16,900 km2 ; the swamplands lose an estimated 14 billion three-dimensional meters of H2O yearly due to vaporization.

The chief thought of Jonglei canal is to deviate the H2O from the swamplands country at the sudd part to an excavated canal to diminish the vaporization loses.



The Sudd stretches from Mongalla to merely outside the Sobat meeting with the White Nile merely upstream of Malakal every bit good as due wests along the Bahr EL Ghazal. The shoal and level inland delta lays between 5.5 and 9.5 grades latitude North and covers an country of 500A kilometers south to north and 200A kilometers east to west between Mongalla in the South and Malakal in the North.

Its size is extremely variable, averaging over 30,000 square kilometres. During the moisture season it may widen to over 130,000 kmA? , depending on the inflowing Waterss, with the discharge from Lake Victoria being the chief control factor of inundation degrees and country flood. A chief hydrological factor is that Sudd country, dwelling of assorted weaving channels, lagunas, reed- and papyrus Fieldss, loses half of the inflowing H2O through evapotranspiration in the lasting and seasonal flood plains.

Schematic of Jonglei undertaking


Hydrologically the Sudd plays an of import function in hive awaying floodwaters and pin downing deposits from the Bahr EL Jebel. Approximately 55 per centum of H2O come ining the country is lost to vaporization. Water degrees fluctuate up to 1.5 metres, depending on the strength of seasonal implosion therapy. The part receives less rainfall ( typically between 55 and 65 centimetres per twelvemonth ) than neighbouring countries at the same latitude.


The morphology of the country is defined by the channel and laguna system of the lasting Sudd swamps, the next inundation fields and the environing level terrain. The Bahr EL Jebel runs to the north-northwest and hence in an angle to the gradient of the flood plain which is inclining down to the North. While north of Juba the river flows in an incised trough. The Bankss of this trough lessening in tallness from south to north with the Bahr EL Jebel nearing Bor town and terminal into the Sudd flood plain merely north of Bor on the eastern bank and towards Shambe on the western bank. In the southern portion, the river meanders from side to side in the restraining trough in one or more channels, but farther north the swamp is non limited by higher land and the system of river channels becomes progressively complex. The features of the river with the web of channels and lagunas are distinguishable from satellite imagination and digital lift theoretical accounts.

Black cotton soilThe geology of the country is defined by heavy clay dirts, extremely impermeable with a top bed of black cotton dirt “ the black cotton dirt is type of dirt that is extremely fertilizable so it is frequently cultivated by cotton so it was named so ” of about 500A millimeters in norm. Sandy dirts are found merely in deepness of about 30m and below, mentioning to good boring profiles. This indicates a really limited groundwater influence on the country hydrology.


Plants screen of the country can by and large be classified in five classs which occur depending on the lift of the country above river inundation degree: the lakes and rivers themselves, the natation works life of the swamp, river-flooded grasslands rain-flooded grasslands, and wooded grasslands on the peripheries. Areas of the grassland and forest have been cultivated.

The denseness of the grasslands there is altering depending on the season, being tall grass in the rainy season and short and dry in the dry season, where besides frequent combustions occur. The fluvial country is by and large overgrown with workss, with some chief and side channels every bit good as lagunas of unfastened H2O.

The chief species are:

Phragmites communis ( shoal flooded, inhumed roots )

Echinochloa pyramidalis ( shallow flooded, inhumed roots )

Oryza barthii ( shallow flooded, inhumed roots )

Echinochloa stagnina ( deep flooded, superficial/floating roots )

Vossia cuspidate ( deep flooded, superficial/floating roots )

Cyperus papyrus ( deep flooded, superficial/floating roots )

Typha domingensis



Typha domingensis

The first three species are anchored so their distribution is limited to depth of implosion therapy, for the last species their root system needs to be in H2O or saturated dirt for good which gives a good index on inundation forms. P. communis, E. pyramidalis and O. barthii for illustration dominate merely in countries where the deepness of implosion therapy does non transcend 130A centimeter over a period of 10 old ages or 118A centimeter for a month in the twelvemonth. Floating workss of C. papyrus had caused obstructions in the Sudd swamps in a figure of occasions between 1879 and 1900 when, the workss were torn out by increased inundations. From this it can be concluded that C. papyrus demands saturated conditions, can digest deep implosion therapy but is limited to a certain scope of deluging which appears to be 150A centimeter.

Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk pastoralists use the Sudd and the environing countries extensively. Life stock and rain-fed agribusiness are the dominant agencies of support for the mostly rural population for which the seasonal flooded grasslands along the Sudd provides valuable croping lands.

Sometimes the matted workss break free of its moorages, constructing up into drifting islands of workss up to 30 kilometers in length. Such islands, in changing phases of decomposition, finally interrupt up. The sulky Waterss are host to a big population of mosquitoes and parasites that cause waterborne diseases. The Sudd is considered to be about unpassable either overland or by watercraft. The early adventurers seeking for the beginning of the Nile experienced considerable troubles, sometimes taking months to acquire through. Alan Moorehead says about the Sudd, “ there is no more formidable swamp in the universe. ”


The Sudd provides nutrient and H2O to big populations of migrating birds, with more than 400 species of bird found at that place including Shoebills, White Pelicans, and Black Crowned Cranes. As the environing landscape is a big wrapping of dry Sahel across Africa the swamp is besides a oasis for migrating animate beings, particularly antelopes such as the Nile Lechwe. Meanwhile the shallow H2O is frequented by crocodiles and river horse. In more highland countries the Sudd has been known as a historic home ground for the endangered Painted Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus ; nevertheless, this candid may disappear in the part.

Different species of migrated animate beings in sudd country


Because of the Sudd swamp, the H2O from the southwesterly feeders Bahr el Ghazal for all practical intents does non make the chief river and is lost through vaporization and transpiration. so the hydro-geologists in the early portion of the twentieth century suggested to delve a canal E of the Sudd which would deviate H2O from the Bahr Al Jebel above the Sudd to a point further down the White Nile without go throughing through the swamps and transporting the White Nile ‘s H2O ‘s straight to the chief channel of the river. The Jonglei canal undertaking was foremost studied by the authorities of Egypt in 1946 and programs were developed in 1954-59. Construction work on the canal began in 1978 and was planned to be finished on 1985 but the eruption of political instability in Sudan and the beginning of the civil war held up work for many old ages. By 1983 when the Southern Sudanese brought the plants to halt after unearthing 260A kilometer of the canal out of 360A kilometers and the elephantine German-built digging machine at the south terminal of the canal was destroyed by a missile. As peace broke out after 2005, the hope grew to go on the undertaking. However on 21/2/08, the Sudanese Government said the resurgence of the undertaking was non a precedence. Even, in the beginning of 2008, Sudan and Egypt agreed to re-start the undertaking and complete the canal after 24 old ages. It is estimated that the Jonglei canal undertaking would bring forth 4.8 x 109 mA? of H2O per twelvemonth. However, complex environmental and societal issues are involved presents that were non studied and solved in the early beginning which may be obstructions in go oning the undertaking.

The undertaking supposed to be 2 phases, the first phase was to supply the Nile with 3.8 BCM of H2O and that was traveling to do 40 % of the wetland prohibitionist and the 2nd phase was to dry the land wholly supplying 4.8 BCM and some people even expected more than the dual sum of H2O coming from phase one. Besides the Egyptians will assist the Sudanese to cultivate those lands.

WHAT THE Undertaking WILL DO

The H2O in the sudd country is spread everyplace that means that the surface country is excessively big so the vaporization is immense excessively but the Jonglei canal will restrict the surface country as the breadth of the canal vary between 30 to 50 metres. Besides the deepness of the H2O in the sudd country is really small because it is dispersed but the deepness of the canal will be 4-8m. The dirt in the sudd country is loose, so it is unable to command the base on balls of the H2O and most of the H2O is lost due to H2O infiltration inside the dirt.

The cross subdivision of Jonglei canal in upper intermediate and lower watercourse

Jonglei Canal cross subdivisions at Upper, Lower and Intermediate watercourses

The canal will divide the upland colonies from the graze lands and hence it will blockade the free migration due wests in the Jonglei country. Besides, the dry season will crawl into the part faster since 36 % of the swamp country presently available will be reduced. This means that the Nilotes “ people lives in southern Sudan ” will travel due wests to the rivers ‘ Bankss earlier in the twelvemonth to hunt of imbibing H2O and cowss croping.

In order to work out this job depending on the Nilotes scheme:

If the Nilotes choose to go on to populate chiefly as mobile cattle raisers, so a set of Bridgess ought to be built across the canal to let for the seasonal migration of these people and their cowss.

If the Nilotes accept to turn into settled husbandmans, the rural development to the Upper Nile part would intend that the Nilotes would hold to accommodate to an economic system that would aline itself by design to the effects of undertakings of no longer allowing the one-year implosion therapy, and therefore coercing them to cultivate utilizing both rain-grown harvests every bit good as cultivate and crop their flocks on land that is automatically irrigated from the canal.

And if the Nilotes agreed to be husbandmans there may be besides system to utilize the drained H2O in recycling it and salvage more H2O to be used in other topographic points. Besides Egyptians and Sudanese may hold agribusiness undertakings to maximise the land production and by this the economic system of both states will increase.

Besides the canal will better mobility and commercialism throughout the part by presenting a navigable channel every bit good as an all season route through the part. It can non be argued that such betterments to what is presently at best seasonal route substructure would drastically better the overall quality of life in the part. Simply from a nutrient security position, these paths would let for cheaper and more plentiful import and export of nutrient and goods to Upper Nile and Jonglei State.

The 2nd phase of the undertaking is to dry the swamps wholly that has its advantages and disadvantages. The drying of the swamps will kill the diseases and will non let more diseases to turn there plus the mobility through the sudd will be easy non like it is now. But this drying procedure will kill about 4000 species of animate beings that used to feed on the grass and workss in the swamps and some of these species may extinct.

So which 1 is better to dry the swamp wholly and seek to supply the nutrient and the environment needed to those species or merely do n’t make the 2nd phase and go forth some swamps for those species.

In my sentiment to dry the swamps wholly is better because as Alan Moorehead says about the Sudd, “ there is no more formidable swamp in the universe. ” And for the animate beings we can supply the environmental demands for them in a certain topographic point in the sudd.


First of wholly, there must be an understanding between Egypt and Sudan to go on the undertaking.

Second, the other Nile states must besides hold on it and to hold they have to take some advantages of the H2O. So that the 4.8 BCM is non merely divided between Egypt and Sudan but besides among the other states.

Third, solve the raised disadvantages through:

edifice Bridgess

supplying the environmental topographic point for the animate beings

assisting the Sudanese cultivate their lands

Fourth, we have to be certain that the Nilotes are convinced to go on the undertaking because they used to hold their life manner and they do n’t desire to alter it and if anyone attempt to go on the undertaking they will hit him.

Fifth, the past digging machine was destroyed so there must be another machine and it truly will be much. Even it will be more than it used to be.

The Excavator Machine

Personal Opinion

The undertaking must be continued shortly because about 75 % of the undertaking has been done so there are non much to be done. Besides the undertaking will do Egypt and Sudan benefit from it economically, politically and socially. Besides this undertaking will be the Begin of the good relationship between the Nile states which will do it more easy to do other undertakings on the Nile to do all states benefit. At last the Jonglei canal in my sentiment and as mentioned by one of my resources individuals “ Dr. Mostafa Ghaith ” who said that this will be a sample for a Giga Project which is to do a canal from Congo River through Africa to Egypt so may be to other states like Libya to acquire used of the abandon H2O of Congo River for the interest of the benefits of all the Nilotic states in different development sectors.