Our external surrounding provides the place in which we live, the topographic points we visit and everything that we do will depend on the health of our environment. A good environmental puting impact on the physical activities we participate in like walking, jogging, skating among others, the societal scene and how we interact with our neighbours in the community and besides our general good being. It is hence of import to hold a well designed and planned environment for improved public wellness of the citizens. Many diseases which affect us are determined by the physical and environmental factors in our vicinities ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p.iv ) . Residents of a certain vicinity may be at increased hazards to peculiar diseases and wellness conditions if the causative factors of the disease are present in their vicinities. Most of the diseases some of which are chronic are caused by specific pathogens like viruses or toxic substances in the environment. However, it is the societal establishments and our behavioural patterns which influence us into acquiring into contact with the disease doing agents. In this regard, people populating in wellness friendly environments like those with wellness promoting services and healthy community norms are less likely to develop diseases as compared to those populating in societal and economic challenged environments. This paper evaluates be aftering and urban design and their influence to the urban environment for improved human wellness results.
Urbanization and wellness
With economic development and improved societal services in the urban centres, a big population of people has settled in the urban centres. The rate of enlargement in the urban countries is rather high that many authoritiess are sing jobs with urban planning and design. The urban life can at sometimes be contributing to improved wellness compared to hapless rural countries. There are improved wellness attention installations, enhanced security to the occupants, a higher entree to instruction due to presence of schools and other establishments of higher acquisition and improved societal support for the occupants. However, the high figure of people in the urban centres increases the hazards to deteriorating healthful conditions, overcrowding in the residential houses, hapless solid and liquid waste direction systems and industrial pollution. Many urban centres have overloaded its substructure taking to a rise in societal emphasis and disorganisation. Consequently, a rise in societal immoralities likes force, drug maltreatment and robberies have been recorded. In add-on, wellness jobs like respiratory jobs, hurts due to increased accidents, malignant neoplastic diseases, catching diseases, depression among others are on the rise. New attacks have been developed to forestall the happening of these wellness jobs in the urban centres. The approaches considers wellness holistically by turn toing environmental issues impacting wellness, the public policies for betterment of environment and wellness of occupants and the personal behaviours of the people which may take to environmental taint therefore impacting other peoples wellness. Local authoritiess have been tasked by guaranting proper planning of urban centres and the control of urban pollution.
Planing and urban design
Urban be aftering involves integrating of conveyance planning and finding of appropriate land us in order to guarantee betterment of the built, societal and economic environments of the people in the urban centres. The urban planning and design considers the people populating in the urban centres guaranting their societal, economic and wellness demands are observed and maintained. The design should guarantee healthy planning is guaranteed and there are healthy topographic points for the occupants to bask life, working or sing. Planning is a determination doing tool and influences the policy preparation procedure of urban centres guaranting the human wellness and good being are maintained at all times. The wellness of the people in a certain vicinity can be determined by how good it & amp ; acirc ; ˆ™s planned. For case, good illuminated walking and cycling waies will find the figure of people walking and cycling along the waies. This boosts healthier life styles of the people and the associated economic and societal benefits are achieved. The engagement of occupants in physical activities like walking or cycling reduces their opportunities of geting diseases and conditions like fleshiness, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes among others. Physical activities have besides been associated with a rise in societal interaction thereby take downing incidences of depression and anxiousness ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. V ) . The integrating of wellness positions in the planning procedure influences the people & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s pick of being active or non. The proviso of built environments which are easy to entree any clip encourages the occupants to travel out and hence creates a society that is vivacious and active and therefore less incidences of diseases.
The design considered when be aftering an urban centre should guarantee the occupants wellness is taken attention of. Ideally, many urban centres in the universe were planned to provide for a certain figure of people hence the societal services were limited to a certain extent. However, the high inflow of people to the urban centres has necessitated the local authoritiess to believe of better designs that can provide for the high population. Attempts have been made to re-organize the available installations to be used by the occupants with doing much impairment which will do wellness jobs. In the design of urban centres the undermentioned considerations are met ; walking and cycling paths which guarantee the occupants move about to their finishs easy and safely ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 9 ) . Many good planned paths have extremely connected web of pathwaies for easier motion of people in and out of towns to the residential countries, waies which are shared by the bicyclers and walkers off from the busy roads used by automobilists and waies which are meant for diversion and leisure activities. These waies are used by the active occupants either on their manner to place from work or merely holding a easy walk around the town. The designing of these waies should see associating of foot waies with the shared waies to guarantee that easier entree to stores, schools and public conveyance Parkss is maintained. The waies should be safe for the people through proper lighting, avoiding tunnels and high block walls which limit visibleness and making paths that stimulates and attracts the occupants to utilize them more frequently. In add-on, the waies should be in a place to provide for the occupants with particular demands like those on wheel chairs, baby buggies and the aged. The happening of accidents is at times a common characteristic in the urban centres due to congestion and heavy traffic jams. These waies are safe for the occupants from the speedy automobilists and accidents are avoided and much minimum as the occupants opt for the safer waies. As more people values utilizing the waies alternatively of vehicles, the job of traffic jams is minimized and besides pollution due to carbon emanation from the autos. The minimisation of these factors serves to better the wellness position of the occupants in the urban centres and should therefore be encouraged.
The 2nd design consideration in the urban centres is the streets. An attractive street with beautiful frontages is instrumental in promoting the motion of people around the town ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 11 ) . Presence of all types of people in the streets encourages integrating and interaction of people as they meet on their finish to some topographic point. This encourages good vicinities as people come to esteem the diverse properties of others in the society. A street design which has a grid system enables integrating of people with other next streets and additions convenience in bike or pes travel. Streets should hence be designed to let direct and at leisure waies to assorted finishs in the vicinity. This allows safe handiness and easier entree to the streets for easier transit and communicating. To minimise the hazards of accidents associated with streets in towns, the town contrivers and interior decorators should see ordinance of velocity in towns with assorted restrictions being provided depending on the type of street in inquiry. The traffic circles should decelerate vehicles and supply visibleness to the automobilists to guarantee safe flow of traffic. There should be proviso of safe topographic points along the streets for prosaic crossing. Clearly marked zebra traversing lines and control of traffic by traffic visible radiations should be ensured for the safety of the town inhabitants. The streets should be broad plenty for safe prosaic lanes and cycling waies which are able to link to the walking waies in the vicinities. In add-on, the streets should be attractive and welcoming to all people by good planning of store gallery and foreparts along the streets. The above design consideration for the street ensures a safe environment free from bad incidences and ensures smooth flow of both traffic and people. This ensures healthy life as emphasis due to battles is avoided in the streets.
The local finishs that are often accessed by many people in the towns should be good unbroken and easy accessible at all times. These topographic points such as the nutrient shops, chemists, nutrient centres, coffeehouses and others provide countries that occupants can walk or rhythm due to their propinquity and strategic vicinities ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 14 ) . The topographic points hence provide a opportunity for assorted interaction of different people in the society, supply distances that are walkable and cut down overreliance on motor vehicles for the short clip distances. The urban contrivers should turn up the local public-service corporation countries in little distances which are walkable from homes and concerns. The proviso of centres in the bosom of the vicinities where different goods and services can be accessed provides a good opportunity for interaction and socialisation which fosters the local economic system and encourages good community life. The contrivers should besides supply comfortss to these countries like imbibing H2O, shelter and seats, bike wadding installations and public usage lavatories. The handiness of these services encourages the locals to see the local finishs. Socialization between people of different ages encourages ethical motives in the society which creates peaceable coexistence in the vicinities.
During urban be aftering it is indispensable to see proviso of unfastened infinites and Parkss. These topographic points provide countries for the people to walk or rhythm to and bask the calm atmospheres off from the buncos in the streets ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p.15 ) . These topographic points provide good evidences for diversion and for kids & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s play and therefore offering a opportunity for their interaction. In add-on, the older grownups can walk and loosen up or garner in societal groups to hold a confab. The Parkss do attract people from other topographic points and hence supply a meeting point to diverse people. The chief aim of planing unfastened topographic points is to supply a walking distance to the countries for the occupants. The design should provide for the walking and cycling waies which pass the countries and integrate them to the wider web of waies in the vicinities. The Parkss and unfastened countries should be provided with a assortment of recreational activities like drama equipments for the kids and field markers for assorted games. The planning should guarantee a assortment of trees which provide natural shadiness for the park visitants. Attempts should be enhanced to guarantee comfort for the visitants through proviso of assorted services like imbibing fountains at strategic points in the Parks. The safe unfastened topographic points and Parkss guarantee the occupants are able to loosen up off from town activities in cool topographic points. Besides, the kids are able to prosecute in activities which guarantee they remain healthy at all times.
The public conveyance is the other proviso which should be catered for by the contrivers and interior decorators of urban centres. The public conveyance connects the people with different topographic points like their working countries, societal centres, and wellness installations among others ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 17 ) . The usage of public conveyance by occupants comes with many benefits. It is economical as compared to private autos and reduces the job of congestion on the roads. In add-on, the occupants become more active in their day-to-day life as they have to walk or rhythm to the coach stops or Stationss. Planning should be carried out that ensures handiness, safety and dependability of public conveyance. The design should guarantee that the walking and cycling paths are good connected to the public conveyance system to increase their use. The Michigans should be at lesser distances of less than half a kilometre to promote the occupants. To guarantee comfortability for the users, equal seating should be provided and safe velocities should be encouraged. The usage of public conveyance besides minimizes air pollution in the urban centres and hence protecting the occupants from respiratory tract infections like chronic bronchitis and others.
The planning section should guarantee proviso of seats at regular intervals in the streets to heighten comfortability ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 19 ) . The seats should in countries with adequate security and shadiness to heighten their serviceability. It is of import to supply marks and site maps that give waies in the streets to assorted topographic points. All countries should be good illuminated particularly along the walking and cycling waies to better the security of the users. The fence and walls in the towns should be low or transparent along the frontages and unfastened topographic points.
Finally, attempts should be made to further community spirit in the vicinities. This creates a sense of ownership to an country and encourages strong societal webs ( National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2004, p. 21 ) . Communities that are active are ever at peace lending to the development and economic system of their countries and making opportunities for interactions. The contrivers should hence affect the communities in their planning activities to heighten community spirit. They should besides provide for topographic points where community activities like cultural festivals are held.
Safety for route users
Walking and cycling paths
Design of safe and attractive paths to the users
The waies should be broad plenty with equal lighting, less traffic and near the vicinity finishs
Have clear and safe connexions by usage of marks, proper landscape gardening and lighting
Ensure clear connexions of the waies to the streets
Safe crossing points for walkers and velocity ordinances
Ensure easy accessible waies. Supply for curb inclines and paseos which are in good status
Safe vehicle motion without congestions and holds
Ensure velocity control in towns, traversing points that caters for all people including those with particular demands
Safe crossing points for walkers and velocity ordinances
Ensure proper connexions with the walking and cycling waies to better handiness
Design street webs that provide direct and leisure waies to the local finishs
Essential shadiness in the prosaic and cyclist paths
Provide for a assortment of activities in the vicinity centres
Safe entree for all the route users should be provided
Open infinites and Parkss
Creates paths to the Parkss to promote diversion
Ensure clear sightlines, provide seats and other public assistance installations
Care of clear sightlines at all intersections, walkers traversing and the traffic circles
Clearly accessible waies
Ensure accessible Michigans for the public vehicles
Ensure stops in active locations which are clearly seeable
Ensure clear connexion points and controlled velocity
Ensure stops in active locations which are clearly seeable
Ensure clear waies for the automobilists and walkers
Design the marks in hierarchies from most of import to least
Clearly seeable and apprehensible to all route users
Ensure big, clear and next to accessibility waies