World War II Research Report Erica Slaughter “Italy” University of Phoenix Western ideals and World War II Hundreds of philosophers and historians possess the concern of how the modern world has come into being. Many issues, from The Great War to World War II have effects society today. This paper will trace the rise of totalitarianism in Italy as well as other European countries between 1918 and 1939, and the contrast to political developments in Great Britain, France, and the United States.
In this paper the subject to explain is the Holocaust in the context of World War II and Western ideals, including the roots of anti-Semitism and intolerance of those considered inferior in Germany, a comparison of anti-Semitic actions in Germany, also an explanation of The Final Solution. This paper concludes with a description of the aftermath of World War II. The Rise of Totalitarianism in Italy Political changes totalitarianism and fascism in Italy during 1918. Benito Mussolini advocated a violent revolution to over throw the parliamentary monarchy within Italy and denounced nationalism.
Mussolini celebrated Italy entering the war; he also noticed the dissatisfaction of many homebound soldiers focused on the Treaty of Versailles. In effort to persuade Italy into the war, Allied Powers promised Italy large portion of territorial gains. In 1920 Mussolini had convinced many soldiers to break up strikes, the Black shirts garnered their support also shared their communist sentiments. The police refused to stop the squads, allowing the Black shirts freedom to inflict damage they wished. Political development in Italy changed drastically the old system to the way other countries had begun to handle their politics.
Through the use of propaganda Hitler change the entire way the people of Germany thought he practiced a policy of racial superiority of the Germans. Hitler called Germans Aryans, and people were sorted by the correct ethnic group purity. Causes of World War II The effects of the great depression had harmed the entire nation nearly every family felt the catastrophic damage caused. The stock market crashed in the fall of 1929 investors had lost some forty billion dollars. During the great depression the nation economic health worsened, President Hoover maintained medical relief was not necessary.
Thousand among thousands worker laid-off from their only jobs, business owners went bankrupt and at least five thousand banks failed (Mark Kishlansky, Patrick Geary, and Patricia O’Brien 2009). Anti-Semitism and Intolerance Under fascism anti-Semitism was associated with such politicians and writers Paolo Orano, Roberto Farinacci, Telesio Interlandi and Giovanni Preziosi although, initially at least, Jews took part to set up and were permitted to join the National Fascist Party and a handful, notably Aldo Finzi, gained a high profile until the 1938 racial laws.
On 28 July 1938, Pope Pius XI made a speech at Propaganda Fide college, expressing the view that mankind is a single, large, universal human race (… ) [with] no room for special races, and the Alliance Israelite Universelle thanked him for that speech. While some Roman Catholic prelates tried to find compromises with fascism, several others spoke out against racism. The Archbishop of Milan, cardinal Schuster, who had supported Amici Israel, condemned racism as heresy and an international danger (… ) not lesser than bolshevism in his 13 November 1938 homily at Milan Cathedral (Sergio Pagano 2009).
Comparison of Anti-Semitic Actions After World War 1, the German government was facing thousands of difficult problems as society search for someone to blame for the defeat in the First World War. Extremists from all sides sent threats to revolts. The extreme inflation causes Thousands of Germans to have any faith in the German government. Hitler gains control of the Nazi party in the 1920s, an organization, which is anti-Semitic. Hitler gains popular political credibility by placing the responsibility on the Jews for Germany’s defeat in the First World War.
Hitler also blames Jews for Germany’s economic problems. “What is less understood are the political conditions associated with the rise of Hitler and fascism” (Knudson, 2006). Hitler informs the Germans that they belong to a superior race, which is meant to rule the world, better known as the Aryan race. “Hitler had already started his political career in 1919, and had been influenced by this kind of Pan-German thinking” (Noakes, 2010). The Great Depression causes the unemployment rate to rise; thousands of desperate people began to trust Adolf Hitler (Talalay Dardashti, Schelly (20 August 2006).
Mussolini’s Italy Italy was a poor nation. Although Italy was one of the victorious Allies in World War I, Italians believed that their country had been betrayed by the peace settlement of 1919 by being denied the territory and status it deserved. A recently created electoral system based on universal manhood suffrage had produced parliamentary chaos and ministerial instability. The lack of coherent political programs only heightened the general disapproval with government that accompanied the peace negotiations. People were beginning to doubt the parliamentary regime’s hold on the future.
It was under those circumstances that the Fascist party, led by Benito Mussolini (1883–1945), entered politics in 1920 by attacking the large Socialist and Popular (Catholic) parties. The Combatants and Important Leaders of the Axis and the Allies On 28 October 1922, the Fascists undertook their famous March on Rome, which followed similar Fascist takeovers in Milan and Bologna. Mussolini’s followers occupied the capital. The event marked the beginning of the end of parliamentary government and the emergence of Fascist dictatorship and institutionalized violence.
Rising unemployment and severe inflation contributed to the politically deteriorating situation that helped bring Mussolini to power (Mark Kishlansky, Patrick Geary, and Patricia O’Brien 2008). Motivation Italy’s motivation for entering World War 2 can be seen as a multitude of misrepresentation. Racial and religious strife seemed to plague all of Europe. The Great War had put great economic pressure on the countries involved. The great world depression had many questioning the power of democracy, while in the same instance there were individuals who saw this period as a grand opportunity to seize power.
People are the most vulnerable when their environment is unstable and chaotic. Oppression can cloud the judgment of the masses, as it was seen in the years leading up to the Second World War most of the memorable leaders who possessed great oratorical skills in which could easily influence the masses. The writer will present the facts and causes which led to the involvement of the Italian government in World War 2. The Allied powers promised Italy a significant amount of territory at the expense of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, if they entered the Great War on their side.
This was called the Treaty of Versailles, unfortunately the final settlement was less favorable to Italian interest than originally promised, and this didn’t fare well with the homebound soldiers and countrymen. Benito Mussolini captured the attitude of those individuals and created a radically nationalist and anti-communist party- Fasi Italiani di Combattimento, this was the birth of Fascism. Monarchy was discredited as an oppressive, unresponsive system, Europe was in widespread destabilization economically and socially in which led many to believe that democracy was weak and ineffective.
The successful establishment of the Soviet Union being a socialist state made situations worse. Fascism would incorporate future populist elements of the communist ideology, but also identify itself strongly with nationalism as well. By 1926 Mussolini had become the totalitarian dictator of Italy (Bruner, J 2007) Alliances Italy had been members of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austri-Hungary since 1882. This alliance was not well accepted by the Italian people as they feared military involvement against the members of the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia).
Soon after the battle in Ethiopia, The League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy but France and Britain argued that placing sanctions on Italy might persuade Mussolini to form an alliance with Adolf Hitler. In October 1936 the two leaders signed a non- military alliance. Three years later Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany (The Pact of Steel). By the tenth of June 1940, Italy declared war on both Britain and France. By 1941 Italy was totally dependent on the Nazi Military as the allies took full control of Sicily. Soon after, Victor Emmanuel 3rd dismissed Mussolini from office and placed him under arrest.
On the 23rd of September 1943 Mussolini’s successor, Pietro Badoglio and General Dwight Eisenhower signed the Italian surrender. By October 13th Italy declared war on Germany. The writer believes that there was a series of events which led to World War 2. It could be argued that Hitler may have started it by his intentions and actions, he broke the Treaty of Versailles by the rearmament of Germany. Hitler’s allies could’ve provoke the war as well, Mussolini wanted a Fascist- Roman Empire that extended beyond the Mater sea, Japan wanted a Nipponese empire that stretched well into China and Australia.
The writer could also argue that the democratic powers were too passive. Britain was too sympathetic towards Germany’s recovery after the first war; France was reluctant to go after Germany because they felt as though their allies were unreliable, while America stayed isolated throughout this time period. World War 2 may have been caused by Fascist aggression and the failure of democratic powers to stop this aggression (Talalay Dardashti, Schelly 20 August 2006). References Mark Kishlansky, Patrick Geary, and Patricia O’Brien.
Civilization in the West, Seventh Edition Published by Longman. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Sergio Pagano (2009), The Catholic Church and Racial Laws, L’Osservatore Romano Weekly Edition in English, 14 January 2009, p. 10 Talalay Dardashti, Schelly (20 August 2006). “Tracing the Tribe: At the ICJG: Jews in Italy”. http://tracingthetribe. blogspot. com/2006/08/at-icjg-jews-in- italy. html. Retrieved 19 September 2007. J. Bruner (The Roman Empire) 1991 pg. 258