The last few decennaries a singular figure of land repossessing undertakings has been started in the Persian Gulf. Coastal states seem to recognize that grosss from the oil industry are non increasing any longer, and the UAE were the first to come up with options. Al-Ghadban and Price ( 2002 ) calculated that over 40 % of the seashore of most Gulf provinces had been subjected to alteration by the early 1990 ‘s, doing a entire loss in biodiversity and productiveness.
The Ruler of Dubai, His Highness Sheikh Muhammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, decided to construct an unreal island in the Persian Gulf off the seashore of Dubai. He needed a form that would maximise beachfront infinite ; therefore he chose the form of a thenar tree. Government-controlled developing company Nakheel, was assigned to build the first thenar island in the universe: Palm Jumeirah.[ 1 ]Constructing this island was the first measure into a displacement from an oil industry to touristry industry, which presently makes up 22 % of Dubai ‘s GDP.
The first and smallest island is Palm Jumeirah, dwelling of 17 fronds and an 11 kilometer long breakwater. The island itself measures 5 kilometer by 5 kilometers and adds 78 kilometer of coastline to the original 66 kilometer of coastline of Dubai. In 2006 the first occupants moved in their belongingss after a 5 twelvemonth building. In entire an unbelievable 1 billion M3s of sand was used for the building of Palm Jumeirah.[ 2 ]
The building of the 2nd thenar island, Palm Jebel Ali, was started in 2002 and is expected to be finished by the terminal of 2010.[ 3 ]Finally the Palm Jebel Ali should back up a population of 250,000 people, but together with the inland country called Waterfront it should make a population of 1.7 million people by 2020.[ 4 ]
The 3rd island, started with in 2004 and called Palm Deira, will be the universe ‘s largest semisynthetic island and will be eight times bigger in land mass than Palm Jumeirah. It will stretch 12.5 kilometer into the sea and will be 7.5 km broad. In May 2007 the island was redesigned and decreased in size. However to day of the month this island is non finished, and merely a few stages are ready.
In 2003 another major undertaking was started: the creative activity of The World, 300 little islands organizing a map of the universe ‘s land masss mensurating in entire 6 kilometer by 9 kilometer. It is located 4 kilometers off the seashore of Dubai, adding approximately 232 kilometers of new shoreline.1 In 2005 The World ‘s overall seashores were estimated at $ 14 billion, while single islands are being sold between $ 15 – $ 50 million. In February 2008 the taking Dutch dredging company Van Oord completed The World, including the surrounding groin. In entire, they transported 34 million metric tons of stone to construct the groin and dredged, transported and placed 320 million M3 of sand to build the islands.[ 5 ]The fifth large undertaking is The Universe, but so far building has non been started yet.1
Although the UAE presently construct the biggest undertakings in the Persian Gulf, non all renewal takes topographic point here. In 2006 Qatar finished the building of their ain island, called The Pearl Qatar, located 350 m off the seashore of the capital Doha. The island will make an excess 32 kilometer of shoreline and steps in entire 4 million square metres, offering infinite for 15,000 belongingss.[ 6 ]
The 3rd state building semisynthetic islands is Bahrain. The Amwaj Islands cover about 2 million square metres and are designed to work as a existent township, with even a school and university. Entire costs are estimated at $ 1.5 billion.[ 7 ]The 2nd renewal undertaking in Bahrain is called Durrat Al Bahrain, dwelling of 13 islands covering over 20 million square metres. This undertaking has cost over $ 6 billion.[ 8 ]
Negative environmental impacts of renewal
The land repossessing undertakings in the Gulf have raised a batch of opposition among scientist. In general the claim in Dubai is that the developer, Nakheel, started excessively early with the building of the island edifice, even before the Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) could be reviewed and tested. Salahuddin ( 2006 ) was at first non even allowed to utilize the Nakheel EIA of Palm Jumeirah to analyze and prove environmental impacts of renewal. After he got permission, he found a confer withing house called Martin Mid-East ( MME ) was assigned to execute a bathymetric, geophysical, marine ecological, topographic and geotechnical probe in the country. MME recommended Nakheel among other things to utilize silt screens to forestall all right deposits from distributing to countries environing the building site ; nevertheless the developer did non follow this advice ( Salahuddin, 2006 ) .
Furthermore a newspaper late published in point in which was stated that Dubai ‘s islands easy are droping ( Bates, 2010 ) , nevertheless Nakheel itself denied this.[ 9 ]Fact is that rescued islands invariably need to be renourished which causes environmental perturbations ( Salahuddin, 2006 ) . Furthermore as Van Oord used a “ rainbowing ” manner of spurting the sand up, Salahuddin ( 2006 ) estimates utilizing Nakheel estimations that an country of about 75 km2 could be affected by the building of Palm Jumeirah.
Change of deposit conveyance
Another major consequence of land renewal undertakings, and particularly off the seashore of Dubai, is the alteration of sediment conveyance. As silted sand is comparatively unconsolidated, the sand is invariably gnawing with each undertone, but that eroding is normally counteracted as the natural currents and moving ridges often re-deposit sand on the beaches ( Poole, 2009 ) . By decreasing the force of the moving ridges, the current is non able to lodge adequate sand on the natural beaches which causes terrible depletion of the beach dirt. This sediment conveyance is preponderantly driven by the moving ridges and by and large directed from sou’-west to northeast. Potential conveyance rates vary between 20,000 m3/yr in the north-east to 40,000 m3/yr in the south-west, depending on the orientation of the coastline. The presence of legion constructions along the coastline has interrupted the natural littoral impetus with attendant deposition of deposits on the updrift and eroding on the downdrift sides of these constructions. Annually, Dubai ‘s beaches are estimated to lose between 10,000 – 15,000 M3 of sand, and harmonizing to the Coastal Management Section of Dubai Municipality those beaches are so little that they could non afford to lose any more sand. It is estimated that 60 % of Dubai ‘s coastline will be affected due to the lessened deposit suppletion.
Positive environmental impacts of renewal
Particularly the last few old ages more research has been done on the consequence of land renewal on the coral system ; particularly the kilometres long groins have gained more involvement from scientist. Burt et Al. ( 2009b ) studied the differences of coral screen on natural reefs and unreal reefs ( groins ) off the seashore of Dubai. Coral screen on unreal constructions was found to be significantly higher compared to natural reefs, perchance because of higher deposit rates in natural home grounds. This consequence differed from earlier surveies in which the antonym was found and natural reefs had a higher coral screen compared to unreal constructions ( e.g. Perkol-Finkel & A ; Benayahu, 2005 ) . However, in this survey the groin was less than 10 old ages old, while groins studied by Burt et Al. ( 2009b ) were sometimes even 25 old ages old, bespeaking that it can take several old ages before a coral community on unreal substrate has to the full developed. Furthermore diverseness of coral communities was found to be higher on natural reefs compared to unreal reefs. Interesting to see is that comparable surveies in the Red Sea showed that 30 old ages old unreal reefs still had lower coral diverseness than next natural reefs ( Perkol-Finkel & A ; Benayahu, 2004 ; Perkol-Finkel et al. , 2006 ) , likely because of the differences in structural stuffs. Sing the copiousness of fish, the studied unreal reefs contained higher densenesss and more species than natural reefs, but those differences changed over the twelvemonth with fish communities on natural reef being more stable than on unreal reefs during a twelvemonth.
More elaborate research on which sort of substrate is most preferable by coral settlements resulted in a penchant for the basalt-like gabbro stone over concrete, and even over the natural substrata granite and sandstone ( Burt et al. , 2009a ) . This has of import deductions for the design of unreal reefs, because if unreal reefs or coastal defence constructions are to be designed to promote enlisting of corals, the consequences here indicate that gabbro should be used preferentially over concrete and sandstone.
On the other manus, groins non ever better environmental conditions. Recently it has been showed that the influence of a groin on a next coral reef can hold terrible effects ( Burt, in imperativeness ) . On the control reef, coral screen increased during the sample period as would expected, while screen on the wedged reef decreased from 50 % to 18 % after the groin building and coral community composing changed every bit good towards a more faviids and poritiids dominated community. Furthermore an addition in all right silts was found following the groin building ( 28 % to 53 % screen ) on the wedged reef.
Burt et Al. ( 2009b ) conclude that unreal constructions so support substantial, diverse and dynamic communities, with sometimes higher coral screen and higher extremum fish copiousnesss than natural spots. However these constructions are non alternates of those in natural home grounds, since coral and fish community composing differ the home grounds. The building of large-scale groins in Dubai do back up new home grounds for corals and fish, but communities on these unreal constructions will likely stay different from bing communities and should therefore non be seen as replacings for removed home grounds.
Alternatively of constructing unreal islands, some states besides construct inland waterways and lagunas, non merely to increase local ( touristry ) industries, but besides to heighten marine biodiversity. The two best described illustrations here are the coastal Al-Khiran Pearl City in Kuwait and the West Bay Lagoon in Doha, Qatar.
The Al-Khiran Pearl City is with his 170 kilometer of H2O ways the biggest development, dwelling of salt fens and Rhizophora mangles which are estimated to counterbalance for the 20 km2 of habitat loss in earlier decennaries ( Jones et al. , 2007 ) . Impact appraisal of the bing country showed that it is hypersaline with a low benthal productiveness. The freshly formed H2O ways were assumed to offer infinite for rapid colonisation of micro and marco biology bring forthing a degree of productiveness which exceeds that of the bing home ground ( Al-Jamali et al. , 2005 ) . Research has been done on the entire figure of species, comparing pre-construction with post-construction ( about three old ages since connexion of the H2O ways with the Gulf in 2004 ) . For the intertidel, new beaches compare good in footings of species diverseness and copiousnesss with old research. When both fish and intertidel species are taken into history, the new H2O ways contain more than 250 species compared to the 126 found in the orginal country ( Jones et al. , 2007 ) . Furthermore the Rhizophora mangle species Avicennia marina, obtained from Saudi Arabia in 2003, show a 38 % endurance and hence obtains possiblities for juvenile fish utilizing Rhizophora mangles as a baby’s room home ground. Besides salt fen workss ( such as Halocnemum spp. ) showed a nice endurance rate of 19 % . Surveies at the West Bay Lagoon have demonstrated that sea grass like Halodule uniervis grafts good and is able to set up a representative community rather quickly ( Al-Jamali et al. , 2005 ) , and attempt will be made to present this species in Kuwait every bit good. The presence of these workss together with nutrient beginnings provide by the H2O ways has offered a suited envrionment for 30 species of sea birds and some pediculosis pubiss.
The other undertaking, the West Bay Lagoon in Qatar, lies inland and adjacent to the earlier discussed The Pearl Qatar. It has been developed partially under force per unit area of socio-economic force per unit areas. To keep an outstanding flushing capableness of the H2O ways theoretical accounts have been used to cipher current speeds, ensuing in an mean deepness of 2.5 m. Blushing moreover was improved due to an bing 4 kilometers off the seashore of Doha, doing the way of tidel watercourses to flux through the laguna instead than around the groin. In 2002, six old ages after building, the freshly formed laguna was sampled and compared with samples from the unfastened sea adjecent to the laguna, demoing no important differences for saltwater temperature, salt and O degrees and merely small fluctuation in nitrite, phosphate and chorophyll degrees ( Al-Jamali et al. , 2005 ) . This demonstrates good flushing and circulation capablenesss of the laguna. Benthic diverseness moreover showed on mean 15 species per sample site witin the laguna versus 20 outside the laguna, and merely sea grass and macroalgae stayed behind compared to the unfastened sea. Therefore the sea grass Halohpila stipulacea was transplanted into the laguna in 2002, ensuing in an increased figure of species within the seagrass beds during a study in 2003 and the release of station larval runt has been proposed to analyze the nursery map of the sea grass. ( Al-Jamali et al. , 2005 ) . Particularly the latter seems of high economic value, since it has been estimated that for sea grass bed in Tarut Bay, Saudi Arabia, 1 km2 of sea grass may back up the production of about 5000 kilogram of fish and shrimp yearly ( Coles & A ; McCain, 1990 ) .
Both undertakings show that utilizing a multidisciplinary attack affecting marine civil applied scientists, oceanographers designers and life scientists, H2O quality and productiveness can be maintained and environmental impacts can be mitigated.