Educations significance in the world around us

Education is really important for every state on Earth. It is the unbarred codification key to develop all fragments in states system. Economic growing, poorness decrease and human development are accelerated by instruction. Furthermore, it has great influence on the human society-information and cognition is transformed through instruction. Every state can non disregard the importance of instruction. And its function in present clip becomes even more critical as an absolute demand for development in economic and societal sectors in the clip of globalisation and internationalization-more efficaciously and more expeditiously in work forces for educated people comparing to uneducated people. However, instruction is non widely reached and provided to all people. The causes why those things do non happen are that there are many concerns barricading. In order to work out those troubles, planetary authoritiess try to excite and bring forth many undertakings. Similarly, in Cambodia, instruction is one of the chief facets of the rectangular schemes which indicate that the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport plays an of import function to better economic, societal and cultural spheres of the state. In response to its function stated in the schemes, the MoEYS has made concerted attempts to better quality and equity of instruction. However, many restraints have made it hard for the MoEYS to implement the schemes. They are gender inequality, low quality of instruction, pupil abrasions, fiscal constrain in keeping educational procedures, schooling jobs, and disposal in instruction, policy devising and course of study design. I have noticed that pupil abrasion is one of the many constrains that has an tremendous impact on efficiency and effectivity of the development of the state. To turn to this, many researches about abrasions have been conducted in primary and secondary school degrees which EFA 2015 and Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) are the nucleus of them ; however, there is really small or about no research about pupil abrasion in higher instruction in Cambodia but other states in the universe.

Furthermore, singular point here is that abrasion is perchance the greatest issue confronting higher instruction establishments. While engagement is mandatory in primary and secondary instruction, engagement in higher instruction is voluntary and there are surfeits of causes why pupils may perchance choose, or be forced, to retreat ( McCubbin, 2003 ) . There are fiscal and non-financial cost associated with abrasion. First of all, non-completion pupils invested sums of money in their instruction both resources and clip disbursement. Second, it has negative impacts to other pupils, who are still prosecuting their classs, in educational attainment and development. It destroys their assurance or doing them funny about their committedness to their surveies or establishment ( Tinto, 1975 ) .

Besides instruction is the most of import determiner yet discovered of how far one will travel in today ‘s universe. Furthermore, it has been turning steadily more of import in the sense that each new coevals aˆ¦ has spent more and more clip in schools and taken occupations with higher educational demands. ( Collins, 1979, p.3 )

Particularly, this current proposal references about the pupil abrasion in higher instruction at master degree. During making chief grade of instruction at one university in Phnom Penh, I have observed that maestro campaigners of instruction here have left bit by bit from term to term. Furthermore, by oppugning old cohorts and MEd staff about this issue, the unchanged experiences have existed. I ask myself why that issue occur. This encourages me to carry on this research.

Decisions to travel to go to maestro plan are notable points, which is the

perceived value of a maser ‘s grade. Harmonizing to Anderson & A ; Swazey ( 1998 ) , there are many factors following:

Desire for cognition in the field

Desire to make research in the field

Desire to learn in higher instruction

Desire to profit others through work

Desire to progress in the current employment

Desire for a occupation that pays good

The life style of a scientist

The high respect in which scientists are held

Desire to alter calling

Could n’t believe of anything better to make ( p.3 )

The same what LaPidus ( 1989 ) calls “ defensive credentialing ” and “ discontinuities in calling ladders ” and Collins ( 1979 ) states “ They want a nice occupation ” . Furthermore, Stodt & A ; Thelens ( 1985 ) province “ Because higher instruction stands strategically between the elect businesss and those who aspire to them, its degree become premier inducements to prospective and enrolled pupil. ” ( p.252 )

In add-on, the OECD ( 1987 ) study references:

The aˆ¦ intermediate grade was prompted by employment considerations: the demand in certain field for people with advanced preparation and some cognition of research methods. This displacement over 15 old ages, from a licentiate reflecting the sensed exigencies of scholarship to a licentiate reflecting the sensed exigencies of the labor market, encapsulates much that has happened in the field of post-graduate instruction. ( p.8 )

Furthermore, Yeatman ( 1992 ) describes development maestro ‘s plans for about every field as a tendency in Canada, which the Healy ( 1978 ) provides the importance of maestro ‘s plans and the increased figure of registrations.

1.2 Research Problem

As mentioned earlier, pupil abrasions at maestro degree is a new concern in Cambodian higher instruction. Time and money investing at this degree is much more expensive comparison to the basic instruction sector. Furthermore, money and clip is wasted if the abrasions continue to happen. Specifically, it takes two old ages and half to complete grade here. In add-on, the school fee is 2100 dollars excepting academic stuffs and other academic services ; nevertheless, other universities in general merely 1500 dollars and two old ages in Kampuchean context. As consequence, it becomes researcher ‘s current involvement. Furthermore, that issue is likely to go on in the following cohort and so on if no solution to work out it. It will make pupil ‘s abrasion civilization in the university, which is truly non good.

Furthermore, failure to finish the class has serious impact for the pupils. Harmonizing to Collins ( 1979 ) “ It is known that employers by and large do non choose employees on the footing of their school classs ; instead, they look for the completion of a grade in peculiar topics ” ( p.20 ) . Career, economic and societal disadvantages every bit good as self-esteem and ability amendss are mentioned the same in Yeatman ( 1992 ) in Canada. In add-on, Sternberg ( 1981 ) states “ Those old ages are more than waste: each wining one castanetss into one ‘s strength doing it harder and harder to walk whole and acquire on to another undertaking or profession where the forecast is better and involvement higher. ” ( p.33 )

Another thing to be considered, harmonizing to Simpon ( 2004 ) , an obvious and unwanted fact of higher instruction that a figure of careless pupils or a figure of pupils do non hold the character to finish the demand of their class. Some pupils are non committed plenty to complete college or to accomplish that end. To this point, Hackman & A ; Dysinger ( 1970 ) province pupil ‘s abrasion is non a consequence of non being able to run into the demand of the class work but non caring plenty.

The last but non the least, Simpon ( 2004 ) references:

The going of persons can do serious fiscal strains upon the

establishment by sabotaging its go oning beginning of gross. The fiscal

impact on the establishment could besides be rather big and a major concern. Part

of the administrative and/or overhead cost of enrollment and subsequent

backdown must be borne by the establishment if the pupil withdraws prior to a

specific day of the month. Institutions of higher instruction should endeavor to supply the best

possible service available in order to retain pupils. Servicess could be

improved as specific jobs are identified and solved. By making so module,

professors, disposal, pupils, and the establishment would all profit.

Retention is a campus broad attempt. ( p.5-6 )

1.3 Research aim

In this survey, there are one chief nonsubjective and two sub-objectives. The chief aim is to determine the positions of the abrasion of the maestro campaigners. Furthermore, the first of the two sub-objectives is to find troubles that pupils who leave face. The 2nd is to garner feedback from the departers to inform policy shapers on pupil keeping. In add-on, it is evidently seen in Yeatman ( 1992 ) . Questions were raised to happen the grounds peculiar pupil who decided to go forth in peculiar fortunes. Because analyzing in alumnus plan is voluntarily, the grounds why so many ab initio start so do non complete is oddities to be explained. They must confront something while one time they participate in the plan. Furthermore, the grounds the departers find the surveies in this degree hard to finish while others can make it is another to be considered. Thus the experience of those pupils who leave the plan in image of pupil ‘s abrasion has to be understood evidently and concretely. Besides, it must be understood whether the research section figures of the university or pupil characteristic largely influences the determination to retreat or non. In add-on, the grounds that occupation considerations and household duties which are environmental imperativeness issues as a map to make up one’s mind to go forth is besides considered.

1.4 Research inquiries

All in all, this paper is traveling to be guided by the two following research inquiries:

What grounds that make the pupil unable to successfully finish their Master ‘s Program?

What strategies does the Master ‘s Program have to cover with the abrasion?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This survey is important for several grounds. First, it will reflect the positions of maestro ‘s pupil departers in the current preparation plans. Second, it will bespeak challenges that make pupils leave. Third, it will supply utile information to stakeholders who are involved in treatment on pupil abrasions, particularly at higher instruction degree and to inform higher instruction policy shapers in relation to student abrasion in higher instruction. Fourth, it will assist the pupils make an informed opinion on go forthing. Last but non least, it will be one important literature reappraisal for following coevals research workers in pupil abrasion at maestro degree, which Wright ( 1964 ) stated “ small is known about the sorts of pupils who fail to gain the alumnus grade to which they have aspired and toward which they have spent at least a semester of clip and energy ” ( p.73 ) .

1.6 Definitions of the Footings

The definition of pupil abrasion can be ill-defined ( Tinto, 1987 ) . For case, “ Should individuals who persist in their surveies but fail to finish their degree demand within the five twelvemonth bound be considered departers? ” ( Yeatman, 1992, p.7 ) . For the intents of this instance analyze a maestro ‘s departer is referred to be any maestro campaigners who has been qualified for and participated in the maestro plan, but who has non achieved a grade and is no longer participated in the class. Therefore both “ required ” backdown and voluntary are existed in the definition. ( Most of them left voluntarily )

MEd is maestro of instruction. The gate keeper refers the individual who helps the research worker addition entree to the samples researcher wish to carry on the research. The cardinal sources are the people understand and have valuable information about the sample.

1.7 Proposed chapter lineation of your research paper

There are five chief chapters in the research documents. First of all, Chapter 1 Introduction shows the background, research job, research aim, research inquiry, significance of the survey, the definition of cardinal term. A Harmonizing to Wilkinson ( 1991 ) , the debut provides readers with the background information for the research paper. It is of import to do readers interested in the survey, which is the wide description about the country under the survey and the links for the job that leads to the research survey ( Creswell, 1994 ) . Chapter 2 The Review of the Literature provides the context and background for research job. It shows the research worker is knowing about the survey country ( Wiersma, 1995 ) . The closely related surveies and anterior surveies about the research subject are written down to portion with the readers ( Fraenkel & A ; Wallen, 1990 ) . It is the benchmark to compare the consequence of happening to other findings. Chapter 3 Methodology is the bosom of research paper ( Wiersma, 1995 ) . It consists of research design ; tool/instruments for informations assemblage ; site, population, sample size and trying method ; informations collection processs ; informations analysis ; ethical consideration ; and strengths and restriction of method. Chapter 4 Finding and Discussion is about the summarized authorship obtaining from rating procedure of the informations and the judgement the consequence whether that is consistent or non to the anterior research to what extent. Chapter 5 is Conclusion followed by Mentions and Appendix.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoretical Model

Wetzel et Al. ( 2005 ) stated it has been long recognized by educational research workers that non all undergraduate and alumnus pupils who ab initio register in higher instruction persist till they earn a grade. Many literatures both empirical and theoretical which ascertain the factors related with pupil abrasion in higher instruction are existed. Furthermore, Tinto ‘s Student Integration Model ( 1975 ) , Bean ‘s Student Attrition Model ( 1980 ) , Girves & A ; Wemmerus ( 1988 ) and the College Choice Nexus Model ( St. John et Al. 2000 ) are the most inclusive theoretical theoretical accounts.

Harmonizing to Rumberger and Lim ( 2008 ) , Tinto ‘s theoretical perceptual experience is still worthwhile in clear uping backdown behavior which is a loosely acknowledged theory of institutional going at the higher instruction degree. First, personal properties — household background, accomplishments and abilities, and anterior school experiences, including ends ( purposes ) and motive ( committednesss ) to go on their schooling in Tinto ‘s theoretical account as the procedure of going which is influenced. Second, two separate dimensions, a societal dimension covering with societal integrating and an academic dimension covering with academic integrating, influence pupils by both informal and formal construction of the university. For case, the formal systems of schoolrooms and the informal system of communications with university in other state of affairss may be existed in academic integrating. Furthermore, the demands and properties of alumnus pupils every bit good as external factors make them go forth, which the dimensions can hold distinguishable and free impacts on how the pupils perform. Third, pupil mobility is another facet of continuity. It differentiates between the committedness to the end of completing university and the committedness to the university, and how these committednesss can be influenced by pupils ‘ experiences in university over clip ( p. 115 ) . The theory suggests that universities can hold assorted people or subgroups to supply unnecessary adjustments and proviso to pupils ( p. 119 ) . In add-on, the theory grants the significance of external factors that have influenced pupil go forthing. Besides, Braxton, Johnson, and Sullivan ( 1997 ) conducted many surveies proving Tinto ‘s theoretical account, which they found support from it while Cabrera et Al. ( 1992 ) found Tinto ‘s theory does non win in incorporating external factors to the environment of higher instruction establishment ( Wetzel et al. ( 2005 ) .

Obvious incorporation in external factors is found more inclusively in Bean ‘s Student Attrition Model. The significance of behavioral purposes is stressed in Bean ‘s theory whether the pupil is willing to go forth or remain as continuity forecasters ( Bean, 1980 ) . Harmonizing to Cabrerea et Al ( 1992 ) , the function of environmental, personal, organisational variables in patterning purposes and attitudes to go on or to go forth hold been supported in this theoretical account.

Girves & A ; Wemmerus ( 1988 ) advanced two theoretical accounts, which is empirical, foretelling advancement to gain maestro and doctorial grades. It is based on Spady ( 1971 ) , Tinto ( 1975 ) , Pascarella ( 1980 ) , and Bean ( 1980 ) and includes alumnus experience, relationship between pupils and supervisors and fiscal support. All in all, this theoretical account consists of section features, pupil features, fiscal support, and perceptual experience of the module, which grades, engagement, and satisfaction/alienation are interacted.

The Forth theoretical account is known as the College Choice Nexus Model. It shows about the relationship between a pupil ‘s college pick and pupil ‘s subsequent continuity in college. Socioeconomic factors, academic ability ( public presentation ) , college experience, benefits and cost associated with engagement in a peculiar establishment which develop the pupil ‘s perceptual experience of economic and non-economic benefit to gain a grade are evidently described in this theoretical account ( St. John et Al. 2000 ) .

2.2 Previous Research

It is difficult to happen research about pupil abrasion at maestro degree. If they exist, the consequences are non dependable and generalizable because of little population ( Amber, 2010 ) . In add-on, Yeatman ( 1992 ) stated:

It is a common belief that merely campaigners who are qualified and capable of

alumnus work are selected into maestro ‘s and doctorial plans. Therefore it

is non clear at first bloom why there should be many graduate departers at allaˆ¦The deduction of these surveies is that the phenomenon is complex, with portion of the apprehension to be found in the establishment of acquisition, portion to be found in the external environment and portion to be found within the pupils themselvesaˆ¦Research into alumnus abrasion, peculiarly at the maestro ‘s degree, is light and comes chiefly from Europe and Australia with American surveies mostly devoted to adult females and minorities in alumnus studyaˆ¦there is small current research in this country. For illustration, in Malaney ‘s ( 1987 ) reappraisal of the literature on research on alumnus pupils from 1977 -1987, he found merely two articles devoted to graduate attritionaˆ¦have been mostly descriptive. Until late, no theoretical modelaˆ¦..on the maestro ‘s pupil ( p.15-16 )

Therefore research about pupil abrasion in higher instruction both alumnus and undergraduate pupils are combined together to visualise a image of maestro ‘s pupil abrasion, which is related or at least supplying some consciousness.

Master ‘s pupil abrasion at Simon Fraser University: A portrayal

Yeatman ( 1992 ) conducted this survey at Simon Fraser University. The relationship between pupils and supervisors, the thesis composing undertakings ( pupils ‘ deficiency of research accomplishments, public presentation criterions, and non adequate support for pupils from section ) , and pupil displeasure with academic environment ( what they need and expect are non met ) are evidently illustrated. There was a two phase procedure to roll up informations. First, it depended on the drumhead statistics consisted of all maestro ‘s campaigners who terminated 1985-1990 was extracted via the GRADSTAT plan, a alumnus statistics plan, which is statistical analysis. Second, the usage of the in-depth interview were existed, which a questionnaire based on Tucker ( 1964 ) and interview based on literature reappraisal were the tools. Entire population were 69 departers who left the plan 1990-1991. A covering missive depicting about the survey and a questionnaire inquiring them to take part in an interview were sent including follow-up phone contact. A narrative and a thematic analysis are used to analyze the informations qualitatively.

An analytical survey of pupil abrasion and completion of distance instruction programmes of IGNOU

Biswas & A ; Mythili ( 2000 ) conducted this survey at Indira Ganhi National Open University. It focused on Master of Arts in distance Education ( MADE ) and Postgraduate Diploma in Distance Education ( PDDE ) . In add-on, it was a quantitative research. 250 the whole population comprised of 150 PDDE and 100 MADE. The samples were selected indiscriminately, which a developed questionnaire was sent to selected pupils by station.

Finding the existent odds: Abrasion and time-to-degree in the FSU school of criminology and condemnable justness

Lightfoot ( 2007 ) conducted this survey at the Florida State University ( FSU ) in the college of criminology and condemnable justness. It was about pupils in Master ‘s of Science and Master ‘s of Art grade. Beleson ( 1960 ) and Tucker et Al ( 1964 ) was the two of import literature reappraisals. The sample was selected from the whole population from Fall semester 1991 to Spring semester 2001. Furthermore, it was a quantitative survey. Attrition, time-to-degree, in-program GPA, and plan demand were depend variables while independent variable were admittance and pupil feature. Lightfoot ( 2007 ) used endurance techniques to detect “ clip relationship in a non-parametric mode ” following illative analysis, which comprised of “ the diagnostic testing of arrested development methods, such

as normalcy, one-dimensionality, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, and multicollinearity trials ” ( p.37 ) .

Reason for Doctor Attrition

Haynes ( 2008 ) conducted this survey at the University of Georgia ( UGA ) . Bair & A ; Haworth ( 1999 ) , Attiyeh ( 1999 ) , Smallwood ( 2004 ) , Lovitts, 2001, Kritsonis ( 2006 ) , and Kohun ( 2007 ) pictured the cause of doctorial abrasion. The population was 144. A signifier providing grounds ( open-ended inquiries ) for non-completion on a watchword protected web site were sent via electronic mail, which the dean of alumnus plan was the individual who contacted the pupils. Merely 57 % was replied. A content analysis is used to analyze the informations qualitatively.

First Year Attrition of Master ‘s Students: A Springboard to Understanding the Larger

Problem?

Tokuno ( 2010 ) conducted this survey at University of Hawai’i at Manoa. It is the most logical which Tokuno ( 2010 ) acted to forestall abrasion at the first twelvemonth because maestro ‘s plans are short and most abrasion occurs early, based on PhD research. It was a cross sectional survey 1999-2009 cohorts. In add-on, abrasion definition, abrasion steps, histories for variableness across clip, histories for variableness across plan, correlatives of abrasion, cause of abrasion and abrasion intercession were focused.

With their whole lives in front of them: Myth and worlds about why so many pupils fail to complete college

Amber ( 2010 ) conducted this survey in 2009 in United Sates. It is based on a telephone study runing both land line and cellular phones. The sample was 614 immature grownups aged 22 to 30 old ages who have experience with some post-secondary instruction. Furthermore, the interviews via phone took averagely 26 proceedingss in both English and Spanish and were conducted from May 7 to June 24, 2009-27 per centum response rate for land line and 29 per centum for cell phone. The sample were Americans, Afro-american and Latino respondents. The phone sample was created by Survey Sampling International, LLC ( SSI ) . Standard list-assisted random figure dialling ( RDD ) methodological analysis was used. Public Agenda designed and interpreted reflected informations in this study and Princeton Survey Research International in cooperation with Princeton Data Source, LLC conducted the interview. Furthermore, qualitative geographic expedition was done in five focal point groups. They are grownups who are between 22 and 30.

The last thing to be considered is about the “ Large Picture ” : Key Causes of Student Attrition & A ; Key Components of a Comprehension Student Retention Plan. Cuseo ( 2010 ) developed it at Marymount College. Based on ACT ( 1975 ) , Astin ( 1975 ) , Astin et Al ( 1997 ) , Braxton ( 2000 ) , Braxton ( 2001-2002 ) , Cabrera ( 1992 ) , Forrest ( 1982 ) , Grayson ( 2003 ) , Noel et Al ( 1983 ) , Noel et Al ( 1985 ) , Levitz ( 1989 ) , Pantages ( 1978 ) , Tinto ( 1975 ) , and Tinto ( 1993 ) , Cuseo ( 2010 ) advanced 4 chief root causes of pupil abrasion in higher instruction. In add-on, academic roots ( unequal readying and disinterest in/boredom ) , motivational roots ( low degree of committedness and perceived irrelevancy ) , psychosocial roots ( societal factors and emotional issues ) , and fiscal roots ( inability or perceived inability to afford and perceptual experience that the cost of college outweighs its benefits ) were described in item.

All in all, 4 most comprehensive theoretical theoretical accounts, 6 old surveies, and one important article are above mentioned concretely, which in qualitative, quantitative, and drumhead methodological analysis. They are important keys to develop tools for roll uping the information. Furthermore, they give an ideal image to visualise pupil ‘s abrasion in maestro degree.

On the other custodies, comprehensive pupil keeping surveies have besides to be described. Retention is a important tool against abrasion. Therefore the undermentioned paragraphs indicate them.

Rutledge ( 2004 ) listed down taken stairss in pupil keeping:

Identifying and understanding the job.

Annual patterned advances audit.

Recognition of pupils making doctorial campaigning

Planned induction of issue studies or interviews to understand why pupils leave

Without finishing their grades.

Raising consciousness of the issues widely

Improved orientation.

Focus on effectual mentoring. ( p.1-2 )

Harmonizing to Tinto ( 2005 ) , there are five conditions that must be within higher instruction in order to do pupils away from abrasion:

Institutional committedness

High outlooks

Academic, societal, and fiscal support

Continuous and frequent feedback sing pupil public presentation

Academic and societal engagement on campus, and more significantly, in the schoolroom

Furthermore, Stallone ( 2005 ) mentioned about plan civilization, faculty-student dealingss, cohort experiences, and single factors in retaining pupils in the alumnus plan. Besides, Roberts ( 2007 ) stated small research has been done on keeping in master- and doctoral-level plans. Based on Nelson et Al. ( 2001 ) and Di Pierro ( 2007 ) , Robert ( 2007 ) suggests that decision makers do the following to retain pupils in alumnus plans:

Prepare undergraduates for the alumnus environment.

Give pupils accurate information about alumnus plans, demands, and occupation arrangement in their field of survey.

Expect all alumnus pupils non working in a lab to learn at least one class per twelvemonth.

Supply a life pay to all research, instruction, and alumnus helpers that is equal plenty for them to last through the twelvemonth without traveling into debt.

Offer full health care coverage to all alumnus pupils and their dependants.

Facilitate meaningful reding relationships and provide advisers who have a history of oversing thesis research and demo a strong committedness to graduate pupils.

Provide preparation for alumnus reding module.

Get pupils involved in their field every bit much as possible by promoting engagement in conferences, seminars, and professional development in their field of survey.

Make a hospitable departmental environment.

Describe in item each stage of the doctorial procedure, including an mean length of clip required for each procedure, so that pupils are cognizant early on about the degree of committedness they should show.

Arrange detailed, ongoing orientations for all pupils to embrace each stage of doctorial survey.

Encourage development of a thesis subject early in a pupil ‘s doctorial calling.

Establish a plan in which pupils and their thesis commissions openly discuss the efficiency and effectivity of their interactions.

Prepare pupils for the unwritten defence parts of the thesis ( both proposal and the existent thesis itself ) .

Measure completion rates for comprehensive tests as this is one of the first topographic points where pupils encounter trouble in the alumnus educational procedure.

Establish a departmental sofa with comfy seating, diaries and books, bulletin boards publicizing intelligence and approaching events, and acknowledgments of pupil accomplishment.

Conduct issue interviews with all going students-both graduating and non-graduating. ( p.12-13 )

The last but one the least, Cuseo ( 2010 ) has done many surveies about keeping. 12 Powerful Properties/Principles of Program Delivery are developed.

PROACTIVE

1. Summer Transition/Summer Bridge Programs

2. New-Student Orientation & A ; Convocation

3. Extended-Orientation Course ( New-Student Seminar ) ( Student-Success Course )

4. Early-Alert/Early-Warning System ( for example, absenteeism studies during first 4 wks. )

5. Midterm-Grade Reports ( e.g. , at 7-8 hebdomads into the semester )

6. “ Red Flag ” Procedures ( e.g. , failure to pre-register or regenerate fiscal assistance )

7. Exit Interviews/Surveys ( administered during the procedure of backdown )

8. Already-Withdrawn/Departed-Student Surveys ( conducted after backdown )

9. Re-Recruitment of Withdrawn Students: Converting “ Dropouts ” to “ Stop-Outs ”

REACTIVE

The plan is student-centred, knowing ( purposeful ) , proactive, intrusive, diversified, personalized, comprehensive ( holistic ) , systematic, developmental, lasting, collaborative, and empirical ( evidentiary ) . Retention-intervention timeline: a longitudinal continuum of Proactive-To-Reactive patterns designed to advance pupil continuity is existed ( p.9 ) .

Furthermore, pulling on Beal ( 1980 ) , Braxton ( 2000 ) , Braxton ( 2001-2002 ) , Lenning ( 1980 ) , National Institute of Independent College and Universities ( 1990 ) , Noel ( 1982 ) , and Terrel ( 1988 ) as a base of higher instruction research worker, Cuseo ( 2010 ) developed five possible countries of impact or spheres for keeping intercession:

Institutional Research: Student Assessment & A ; Program Evaluation

Freshman Experience: Proactive Programs & A ; Practices

Academic Affairs: Curriculum, Instruction, & A ; Academic-Support Services

Student Affairs: Co-Curriculum, Student Life, & A ; Student-Support Services

College Administration: Institutional Procedures, Policies, & A ; Priorities ( p.10 )

Chapter 3

Methodology

3.1 Research design

A qualitative method will be used in this research. This will enable the research worker to place the instance of maestro ‘s pupil abrasion in one university in Phnom Penh.

3.2 Tools/instruments for informations assemblage

The gate keepers are the university ‘s curate and MEd ‘s manager and other cardinal sources such as the MEd ‘s staff ( MEd ‘s manager helper ) . Students, runing from cohort 1 to cohort 4, will besides be invited to take part in this survey. They will be contacted through electronic mails and or telephones. However, any unknown alteration of this information is besides something to be considered. Participant observations and in-depth interviewing are the two ways to roll up the information. Furthermore, a questionnaire was developed and designed to supply a opportunity for departers to explicate their determinations ( grounds ) go forthing the class voluntarily ( Appendix A ) . In-depth interview model was designed with penetration from literature reappraisal ( Appendix B ) and a voice recording equipment is used. A note taking tabular array was besides drawn for composing what the research worker observed ( Appendix C ) . The research worker comes into the people ‘s environment where he or she plans to carry on survey and a written record of what is observed and heard is consistently kept. Artifacts, exposure, university memos and records addendum this stuff ( Bogdan & A ; Biklen, 2006 ) .

3.3 Site, population, sample size and sampling method

The survey will be conducted in one university in Phnom Penh at maestro plan of instruction. It bases on two types of sample. Fist samples are the pupil departers from the plan. Second sample are who in charge of university board related to MEd plan.

The departers are about the maestro campaigners of instruction who left the plan. Entire population of departers from cohort 1 to cohort 4 ( academic twelvemonth 2009-2011 ) is 37- 7 females. They will be sent a screen missive informing about the survey and a questionnaire in which they are asked to take part in an interview ( Appendix A ) . With much encouragement and follow-up telephone contact with all the departers, a least around one tierce of this is the sample about 10 to 12 ( 5 to 6 females ) people are expected to affect in the interview. In add-on, purposive sampling is selected to be used. Purposive sampling is one of the most common sampling attacks. Sample sizes can or can non be fixed prior to informations aggregation. They depend on the times and resources available every bit good as the survey ‘s aims ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln, 2000 ) . Besides participant observation in cohort 4 is another.

Vice-rector of university, stakeholders in research section, and MEd manager will be interview. In add-on, keeping policy will be visualized.

3.4 Data Collecting Procedures

Using two processs to roll up data-in-depth interview and participant observation. For in-depth-interviewing, reaching the samples via phone or electronic mail to interview is first point. MEd ‘s manager helper provides the samples ‘ contact list including sex, phone Numberss and electronic mail reference, which is an equal key to entree to reach the departers. Then reach them and do certain that they understand the aims of the survey and have willingness voluntarily to take portion in the survey. Puting and clip is set up every bit low-cost as available. While in-depth interviewing, an unstructured interview which is based on literature reappraisal, following up on what the participant says and non disrupting, inquiring inquiries when they do n’t understand, avoiding prima inquiries, sharing experiences on juncture, digesting silence, showing polite ways to the participants is done. This attack is really utile as a information aggregation in state of affairs where in-depth information is needed. The flexibleness and comparison in interviews is available to obtain as the freedom ( Kuma, 1996, p.109 ) . While questioning, voice recorded is besides done for subsequently reappraisal. The remainder is about the participate observation. The scenes are the schoolroom, MEd room, canteen, eating houses, nines, etc.-where the cohort 4 pupils are with the research worker. The participants are the research worker ‘s schoolmates. Attrition material is usually talked among them while interruption clip, meal clip, amusement clip, etc. That is informal and unplanned activities. Participant observation is when the research worker is a portion in the group activities which being observed in the same state of affairs and mode as its participants, without or with their senses that they have been observed ( Kuma, 1996, p.106 ) . Narrative is done as the method of entering observation. It is a description of the research worker ‘s interaction in his ain words. While detecting the interaction, the research worker makes brief notes. After that the narrative signifier are made from the elaborate notes. Furthermore, narrative recording makes available deeper understanding into the interaction ( Kuma, 1996, p.107 ) . Rich-thick description for the readers is written in the research study and the trustiness is concerned.

3.5 Data analysis

The collected informations will be analysed qualitatively. The transcripts of interviews must be many pages. And each interview transcript will be ab initio coded into thematic classs of personal position, troubles and feedback. Any response that connected more than one class will be coded into all related classs ( Gay et al, 2009, p. 452 ) . Addition to it, meaningful and appropriate format of sum-up of the reply from qualitative questionnaire will be done every bit good along with the sum-up of note pickings. At the terminal, matrixes, construct maps and graphs will be illustrated ( Gay et al, 2009, p. 454 ) . It will expose position, troubles and feedback of the dropout campaigners. In short, a narrative and a thematic analysis are used to analyze the informations qualitatively.

3.6 Ethical Considerations

The engagement in in-depth-interviewing is wholly voluntary. Research participant information and consent signifiers are designed and used. The interviewees have specific rights. They are free to reject to reply any inquiries and to retreat from the interview any fortunes. Furthermore, the interviewees can look into the written text of the interview to do certain it is non harmful to them. The information is purely confidential and anon. .

3.7 Strength and Limitation of method

Flexibility and accent on the context is the strength of the methodology-case survey. Furthermore, this survey has several restrictions which affect the generalizability of the consequences. They consist of clip restraint and fiscal issues. Because of these things, merely one university and merely one maestro plan is exhaustively selected to be conducted so to some extent its consequence can reflect issues of merely one university. Furthermore, all relevant information depends on informations and paperss from interviewees and the MEd stakeholders, so self prejudice may be. Furthermore, the sample is merely from cohort 1 to cohort 4 excepting cohort 5 the new cohort 2010-2012.The research worker works as a full-time staff for a private international school in Phnom Penh so merely weekend clip that the survey can be done. The last thing is that the research worker has limited budget.