Presently in Universiti Pendididkan Sultan Idris there are about 2800 semester 7 undergraduates in different classs. All of the pupils come from assorted parts of Malaysia ; they speak different linguistic communications besides the national Language. The most dominant linguistic communication among the pupils is Bahasa Melayu. Bahasa Melayu can be considered as the first linguistic communication for bulk of the UPSI pupils. Most of the pupils are adept plenty in Bahasa Melayu as it is the medium of direction in Malayan instruction system. Although most of the pupils are adept in Bahasa Melayu but they suffer to read in English.
The concern of this survey is to look into the failing in pupils reading. To be more specific this survey was designed to analyse the intervention of pupils L1 in their L2 reading. The usage of first linguistic communication ( L1 ) by 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) readers to help them grok texts has been noted ( e.g. , Block, 1986 ; Kern, 1994 ; Jimenez, Garcia, and Pearson, 1996 ; Upton, 1997 ) . Hence in this survey jobs caused by the break of the first linguistic communication in 2nd linguistic communication reading will be uncovered.
In this survey we will look into several sorts of breaks that occur in pupils reading. Furthermore, the impact of those breaks will be discussed in the following subdivision of this survey.
1.1 Background of the job
The chief concern of this survey to look into the intervention of L1 in English reading comprehension among semester 7 non-tesl undergraduates in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. Reading comprehension is one of the major jobs among upsi non tesl pupils. In this survey the mark pupils and focal point of the survey will be narrowed down merely for semester seven non- tesl undergraduates.
Semester 7 non- Tesl undergraduates are confronting the trouble to grok the English text as they are non adept plenty in the linguistic communication itself. Harmonizing to ain observation, It is found that most of the non-Tesl pupils are afraid of English linguistic communication. They feel the linguistic communication itself as a large obstruction for them to graduate from the university. The job acquiring severe when it come to examination where the pupils are required to reply comprehension trial. Most of the pupils fail the trial as they can non grok the text given.
1.2 Problem statement.
This survey involves 30 Upsi undergraduates ‘ pupils as the respondents. The purpose of this survey is to look into the intervention of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among the upsi sem 7 non- Tesl undergraduates. The respondents are weak in English even some of them truly fear of English particularly when it comes to reading comprehension trials.
Students suffer if they can non grok the text. Their public presentation will be affected ; most likely the pupils can non reply the exam inquiry because their reading is non effectual. The major job why pupils barely comprehend the text is the intervention of their L1 in L2 reading.
Students became excessively dependent on their L1, in this context Bahasa Malaysia in their reading. Students will analyse the texts based on their anterior cognition on Bahasa Melayu. . Students do n’t truly certain what are the regulations underlying in these two linguistic communications when they applied it, it makes the pupils erroneously integrate this two linguistic communications because they are non adept plenty in L2. Learner construct their ain meantime regulations with the usage of L1 cognition, merely when they believe it will assist them in the acquisition undertaking or when they have become sufficiently adept in the L 2 for transportation to be possible ( Selingker 1971, Seliger 1988 and Ellis 1997 ) .
Students tried to use their anterior cognition on their L1 and seek to utilize it entirely in their L2 reading comprehension. Typically, a individual learns a 2nd linguistic communication partially in footings of sorts and significances already learned in the first linguistic communication ( Carroll, 1964 ; Albert & A ; Obler, 1978 and Larson-Freeman & A ; Long, 1991 ) . In this instance semester 7 pupils who are adept in their L1 normally accommodating their L1 cognition into their reading hence the differences in these two linguistic communications regulations make their reading less effectual. To successfully larn L2 requires the L2 scholar to frequently prevent the L1 constructions from the L2 acquisition procedure, if the constructions of the two linguistic communications are clearly different.
1.3 Purpose of the survey.
The intent of this survey is to see the intervention and consequence of L1 intervention in pupils reading comprehension and to analyse the failings occurred in the reading comprehension. ESL pupils found reading for information easy in their first linguistic communication but when it changed to their 2nd linguistic communication peculiarly to English linguistic communication, the pupils fail to be the effectual reader. Reading in 2nd linguistic communication for information is non easy but taking trial made it even more hard.
Reading comprehension trial in varsity degree is a mandatory subdivision in CE 1 and CE 2 paper ( communicative English ) . Students find it is hard to hit in this subdivision because the inquiry posted in the test is ever being slippery. Hence most of the pupils suffer in this mandatory paper as they can non construe the information required to reply the inquiries. Students become down and score ill in the trial as they can non get by with the texts.
English is besides a basic stipulation to assist varsity pupils to graduate from the university. Students are cognizant of this status and show their concern on this peculiar thing. Hence the nucleus job that contributes to this job must be analyzed.
To sum up this survey is intentionally aims to trip the nucleus jobs arise from the intervention of L1 in l2 reading. The determination of this survey hopefully will clear up us on how the job arises and what are the consequence of the jobs to our pupils.
1.4 Research inquiry
In this survey research inquiry was developed in order to acquire the
- What are the L1 interventions found in pupils ‘ L2 reading comprehension?
- What are the effects of L1 intervention in pupils L2 reading comprehension?
1.5 Theoretical/ conceptual model
In this survey, there are two theories will be used to look into the subject of intervention of L1 in L2 reading comprehension.
The first theory is schema theory. Schema theory is based on the premise that the reader ‘s anterior cognition straight impacts new larning state of affairss. In scheme theory the construct of Schema hour angle been used to understand the major factor that impacting comprehension procedure. The construct of schema comprising of cognition about construct, constructs: objects and the relationships they have with other objects, state of affairss, events, sequences of events, actions, and sequences of actions. The theory is relevant to this survey as the survey is look intoing the L1 intervention in L2 reading. In this context L1 can be considered as the existed anterior cognition of the respondents. Harmonizing to the theory the existed anterior cognition on L1 will be used in reading comprehension of L2
The 2nd theory that will be used in this survey is synergistic attack by Grabe ( 1991 ) . Harmonizing to Grabe in his synergistic attack theoretical account, interaction occurred between the reader and the text whereby the reader constructs intending based partially on the cognition drawn from the text and partially from the bing background cognition that the reader has. This theory is suited for the survey as the survey was aimed to look into the pupils ‘ existed L1 cognition interventions in groking L2 texts.
1.6 Significance of the survey
This survey is utile for the pupils who have the jobs in groking English linguistic communication text. This survey will expose the errors made during the reading of L2 text caused by L1 intervention.
1.7 Restriction of the survey
This survey is limit by the figure of the pupils and the clip constrains. There are about 2800 semester 7 undergraduates in Upsi and this is non included Tesl pupils, the figure of the pupils was legion for the clip concerns. As a solution, the figure of respondents was reduced to 30 individuals merely.
The respondents are all from semester seven and from the non tesl classs, like Bahasa Melayu, Music and Geography. All the respondents are weak in English, and have jobs to grok English reading texts.
What was fear about this state of affairs is the pupils afraid of English text, they might worsen to reply the questionnaire because the questionnaire for this survey requires the pupils to reply a simple comprehension trial, and it is besides a spot clip devouring. The consequences of the trial might non demo the existent province of apprehension of those respondents as they might non take it earnestly.
Time given besides a large concern of this survey, the continuance to make this survey is approximately 4 month started from July to October 2009. The clip given is non equal to roll up the sufficient information.
The reappraisal of related literature will be discussed under 3 major subheadings. Namely the use of L1 in L2 reading comprehension, Malayan instruction context and the scholars ‘ context
2.1 Use of L1 in reading comprehension.
The use of L1 in ESL category is no longer an foreign thing. Auerbach ( 1993: 1 ) argued that the “ usage of pupils ‘ lingual belongings can be good at all degrees of ESL. ” Similarly, Cook ( 1992 ) reminded instructors that whether they want it to be at that place or non, the L1 is of all time existed in the heads of their L2 scholars. Furthermore, interlingual rendition is considered as a cognitive attack in L2 reading ( Anderson, 1991 ; Block 1986 ; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990 ) . L2 readers have been found to trust on interlingual rendition in the procedure of groking L2 texts and that the degree of such trust is associated to the degree of pupils ‘ proficiency ( Kern, 1994 ; Upton, 1997 ) .
2.2 Cross lingual transportation Between L1 and L2 reading texts.
Alderson ( 1984 ) comes up with an interesting inquiry when he asked whether reading complexness was a reading job or a linguistic communication job. He wondered why adept L1 pupils find it complicated to read in the L2. The premise is that reading accomplishments and abilities should switch from the L1 to the L2 and he proposed that a linguistic communication entry needs to be crossed before L1 scholars can read in the L2. This suggests that “ in 2nd linguistic communication reading, cognition of the 2nd linguistic communication is a more of import factor than first linguistic communication reading abilities ” ( Alderson 2000:23 ) . In this survey we will see how adept L1 reader peculiarly BM reader have the problem to grok English reading text.
Students can non be excessively dependent to their L1 cognition in order to be a adept L2 reader. They must get the cognition of L2 besides reflected in ulterior surveies like Alderson ( 2000 ) and Bernhardt & A ; Kamil ( 1995 ) . Bernhardt & A ; Kamil ( 1995 ) in their study of surveies on L1 and L2 reading found that while L1 literacy is a strong forecaster of L2 reading, it is L2 lingual cognition that accounts for success in L2reading. They claim the inquiry is non whether reading in the L2 is a linguistic communication job or a reading job. Alternatively, the inquiry is how much L2 cognition an L2 reader should hold to do usage of L1knowledge to read an L2 text.
Furthermore reading scheme in L1 and L2 are non similar, scholars who can read aptly in two linguistic communications found that the scheme used in two texts and this means reassigning L1 schemes to read an L2 text is non important here ( Taylor & A ; Taylor 1983, Bernhardt1987 ) . For scholars to utilize different reading schemes there must be a divergency between the two linguistic communications and this could be in the orthographic systems ( Pang 2004 ) .
2.3 Malayan instruction context.
In Malayan context there are two major linguistic communications used in the Education System. The Major linguistic communication is Bahasa Melayu and English can be considered as the 2nd of import linguistic communication in our educational system. These two linguistic communications functioning as the medium of direction in all instruction degrees get downing from the primary degree till the third degrees. In order to last the instruction phases, scholars found that they have to read good in these two linguistic communications. Normally in Malayan context most of the pupils are adept in merely one linguistic communication and non many pupils can be first-class in two linguistic communications peculiarly in Bahasa Melayu and English. Hence, the pupils will endure in reading academic texts in one of the linguistic communication mentioned. In this instance semester seven undergraduates non- Tesl pupils was found enduring to read in L2 ( Enlish ) reading text. They have the trouble to grok the texts efficaciously as they comprehend their L1 reading text.
2.4 Learners aspect.
This survey is a follow up to the old survey on this peculiar job. This survey was expected to happen out the intervention facets in pupils ‘ l2 reading. Furthermore this survey besides expected to demo the impact of intervention of L1 in L2 reading. The trial carried out will demo us how the pupils confronting the trouble in groking L2 text.
3.0. Research Design
This survey involves 30 Upsi undergraduates ‘ pupils as the respondents. The purpose of this survey is to look into the intervention of L1 in L2 reading comprehension among the upsi sem 7 non- Tesl undergraduates. The Instruments to roll up informations are trials and believing aloud.
This survey involves two sets of trial. In the first trial the respondents are require to interpret several English sentences into their first linguistic communication. This trial contains seven English sentences, for every sentence pupils are required to interpret it to their L1 ( Bahasa Melayu ) . The purpose of this trial is to calculate out, whether the pupils are bound with the L1 regulations while they cognitively dealt with the L2 sentences. From the interlingual rendition trial we will see how the pupils applied their first linguistic communication sentence structure regulations to the 2nd linguistic communication text. If the pupils managed to build the sentences decently harmonizing to right sentence structure regulations they might successfully distinguish Bahasa Melayu sentence structure from English sentence structure.
The pupils reading might non affected with the syntax confusion if they manage to set up the sentence decently, if they can non set up the sentence right the pupils might be to a great extent bound with confusion of syntactic job. From the trial we will detect how the syntactical differences between these two linguistic communications impacting the pupils reading.
By holding this trial we besides will see how the pupils trade with the hard word. From the consequences of this trial we will look into whether the pupils can successfully interpret the words by thinking the significance of the words harmonizing to the context of the words. If the pupils are depending on the vocabulary to make the trial, they might be excessively depending to their L1 to interpret the l2 text.
Furthermore, the 2nd trial will be a follow up trial to turn out that the pupils are holding the trouble to undertake English text as they have the job of the sentence structure construction and deficiency of vocabulary on the L2. The 2nd trial is a comprehension trial whereby the respondents will be given a text and a set of inquiries based on the text to prove the pupils apprehension of the text. The 2nd trial is non a hard trial, it is adapted from the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia English Test ( SPM ) . Degree of the inquiries is suited for the respondents as most of the respondents are non adept in English.
3.2 Thinking aloud
Another technique used to roll up informations in this survey is believing aloud. Matsumoto ( 1993: 34 ) explained that think-aloud is a information set method whereby sources are require to state “ what they are believing and making ( i.e. , everything that comes to mind ) while executing a undertaking. ” it is applied chiefly to the country of reading, think-aloud can be seen as the reader ‘s look of his or her mental procedures while engaged in reading ” .
Think-aloud process has gained its ‘ repute among research workers as a information aggregation instrument in countries of research that promote a cognitive position such as job resolution and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( Ericsson and Simon, 1987 ; Ericsson and Simon, 1993 ; Faerch and Kasper, 1987 ) .
Test given to the pupils will be videotaped and the pupils ‘ actions recorded. Notes were taken to see what the pupils think when they collaboratively finishing the undertaking. The principle of making the videotaping and notes taking is to see whether there are first linguistic communication, break while the pupils collaboratively making the comprehension undertaking.
Think aloud method will enables perceivers to see straight the procedure of undertaking completion ( instead than merely its concluding merchandise ) .
The respondents of this survey are all semester seven non-tesl pupils. Overall there are 30 respondents and they are from different classs. There are 20 respondents majoring in Bahasa Melayu will be taken as the respondents of this survey. The staying respondents are from Music section and art section. The respondents selected are weak in English and most likely have the trouble to grok English Text. The mean Muet class for the respondents is below set 4. The respondents can be categorized in the low proficiency group of pupils.
3.4 Definitions of footings
Harmonizing to axistranslation.com, First linguistic communication, native linguistic communication or female parent lingua is the linguistic communication a individual learns foremost. In the same manner, the individual is called a native talker of the linguistic communication, even though one may besides be a native talker of more than one linguistic communication, if all of the linguistic communications are learned in nature without formal lessons, such as through cultural battle before pubescence. Often a kid learns the rudimentss of his or her first linguistic communications from his or her household.
Second linguistic communication or L2 is a linguistic communication learned by a individual after his or her native linguistic communication, esp. as a occupant of an country where it is in general usage. Besides that, it is besides a linguistic communication widely used, esp. in educational and governmental maps in a part where all or most of its talkers are nonnative.
Harmonizing to Oxford English Dictionary, the significance of intervention is the action of interfering or procedure of being interfered with.
Reading is the procedure of building intending from written texts. It is a complex accomplishment necessitating the coordination of a figure of distinguishable beginnings of information ( Anderson et al. , 1985 ) .
Reading is the procedure of building intending through the dynamic interaction among: ( 1 ) the reader ‘s bing cognition ; ( 2 ) the information suggested by the text being read ; and ( 3 ) the context of the reading state of affairs ( Wixson, Peters, Weber, & A ; Roeber, 1987, mentioning the new definition of reading for Michigan ) .
Harmonizing to ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brainyquote.com/words/co/comprehension146355.html ) Comprehension is the capacity of the head to comprehend and understand ; the power, act, or procedure of hold oning with the mind ; perceptual experience ; understanding ; as, a comprehension of abstract rules.
3.5 Sample of Questions
1. Translate the sentences below into Bahasa Melayu.
- There is a black cat concealing behind the icebox waiting to catch the mice.
- I have a brace of bluish places, given by my ma as a birthday nowadays.
- Have you read your missive? Asked Ahmad to his younger brother when they sit together in forepart of their house.
- Which portion of the transition is supposed to be summarized?
- The federal caput of province of Malaysia is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong,
2. Comprehension trial
Read the study below and reply the inquiries as follows.
The residents of a house in Medan Taman Tun Dr Ismail got a daze when a proctor lizard went inside their house on Thursday afternoon. One of the residents chased the 1.2 meters-long animal into a room and trapped it indoors. The constabulary responded to the residents ‘ call and caught the reptilian
- Which of the following would be an appropriate headline for the newspaper study.
- Picnic outing bends tragic
a. Alien visitant
B. Trapped and caught
c. Quick foreigner saves lines
d. Unexpected visitants
Bachok, Sun: – A mechanic drowned in his effort to salvage his kids who encountered troubles amid the strong moving ridges at the Irama Beach here, today. Hasan Zain, 43, managed to deliver one of the kids – eight-year-old Nurul Hassan. However, his boy, Mohd Nor, 10, drowned. When he tried to deliver his other girl, the strong moving ridges dragged him underwater. Alocal occupant said that there were frequent drowning instances at the beach as swimmers did non cognize the deepness of the watersthere.
Irama Beach has seen many instances of drowning because
A. people like swimming here
B. the moving ridges are excessively strong
C. many picknickers like to hold outing here
D. the swimmers did non cognize how to swim
Read the text below and reply the inquiry that follows.
All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced or sold in any signifier without the permission of the writer. The writer militias the right to take legal action against any parties caught conflicting these rights.
From the text above, we know that
A. the publication can be photocopied.
B. lone portion of the publication can be reproduced.
C. the writer ‘s permission is required to do transcripts.
Read the newspaper study below and reply the inquiry that follows.
JOHOR BHARU, Thurs – Plunderers are utilizing sophisticated equipment to scour Mersing Waterss for deep-set hoarded wealth. The contemporary plagiarists enter the country on the stalking-horse of prosecuting inscuba-diving but stop up taking invaluable artifacts from several shipwrecks in the country.
Why are the plunderers called contemporary plagiarists?
A. They pretend to scuba-dive in the country.
B. They scour shipwrecks in the Mersing Waterss.
C. They steal artifacts utilizing sophisticated equipment.
Read the text below and reply the inquiries that follow.
COLOURS FOR EACH DAY
Did you know that colours affect our organic structure and head? They can alter the ocular size of a room, make a temper and even mend a individual. Green has the most powerful impact in quieting a individual. Red urges a individual to travel in front and win. It has been suggested that we should have on colorss harmonizing to the yearss that are governed by each planet because making so can trip human secretory organ in assorted bodily maps. For case, ruddy is appropriate for a individual with low blood force per unit area while bluish Michigans gorging.
- Harmonizing to the article, colors may impact the undermentioned except
- Which coloring material was non mentioned in the article?